Vietnam, Martyrs of, Ss.

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A.k.a. Andrew Dũng-L : and 116 Companions, martyrs of Tonkin (in North Vietnam [Bc Vit]); martyrs of Indo-China (Ðông Dương); d. 18th-19th centuries. Canonized June 19, 1988 by Pope John Paul II.

This entry provides information on the 117 martyrs of Vietnam, comprising 96 Vietnamese, 11 Spanish Dominicans, and 10 French members of the Paris Foreign Mission Society. Of these 117 martyrs, 8 were bishops, 50 priests (15 Dominicans, 8 members of the Paris Foreign Mission Society, 27 seculars), 1 seminarian, and 58 lay people (9 Dominican tertiaries and 17 catechists). These martyrs were earlier beatified on four separate occasions: 64 in 1900 by Pope Leo XIII; 8 in 1906 by Pope Pius X (all Dominicans); 20 in 1909 also by Pius X; and 25 in 1951 by Pope Pius XII. On 19 June 1988, some 8,000 exiled Vietnamese Catholics participated in the canonization ceremony in Rome. They heard Pope John Paul II announce: "The Vietnamese Church, with its martyrs and its witness, has been able to proclaim its desire and resolve not to reject the cultural traditions and the legal institutions of the country; rather, it has declared and demonstrated that it wants to incarnate them in itself, in order to contribute faithfully to the true building up of the country."

The corporate feast of the saints is November 24. A personal feast day is shown only when it is not the dies natalis. This date is given to aid further research in older documents. For information on the historical background of Vietnam during this period, (see vietnam, catholic church in).

Almato, Pedro (PhêrôAlmato Bình), Dominican priest; b. 1830 at Sassera (Vich), Spain; d. Nov. 1, 1861, at Hi Dng, Tonkin. He was first sent to the Philippines upon his profession as a Dominican. Thereafter he was sent to Ximabara under Jerome Hermosilla, with whom he was beheaded. Beatified 1906.

Berrio-Ochoa, Valentín (Valentine Berriochoa, Valentinô Berrio-Ochoa Vinh), Dominican bishop of Central Tonkin; b. 1827 at Ellorio (Vitoria), Spain; d. Nov. 1, 1861 at Hi Dương, Tonkin. Following his profession in the Order of Preachers, he was sent to the Philippines, where he was known as an especially devout member of the order. In 1858, he was consecrated titular bishop of Tonkin and appointed vicar apostolic. Upon his arrival in Vietnam, he faced persecution by the government and worked in extremely difficult conditions. Like his Master, the bishop was betrayed by one of his own who had apostatized. In 1861, he was arrested, degraded, imprisoned, tortured, and beheaded with Bishop Hermosilla and Fr. Almato. For a time Valentine's cause was separated from the group because his intercession was credited with several miracles. Beatified 1906.

Bonnard, Jean-Louis (John Louis Bonnard Hương), priest; b. 1824 at Saint-Christo-em-Jarez, France; d. May 1, 1852 Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. He was a attached to the MEP during his work in Annam (Vietnam). While awaiting execution, he wrote a letter of farewell to his family. He was beheaded at the age of 28. Beatified 1900.

Uy Van Bui, Domingo (Dominic Uy, Bùi, Văn Úy Ðaminh), Dominican tertiary, lay catechist; b. 1813 in Tiên Mon, Thâi Bình, Tonkin; d. Dec. 19, 1839, C Mê, Tonkin. He was seized as a Christian with Thomas Ð and strangled for refusing to abjure the faith. Beatified 1900.

Buong Viet Tong, Paul (Paul Doi Buong, Paul Tong Viet Buong, Phaolô Tng Viết B[symbol omitted]ng), soldier; b. in Ph Cam, Huế (Trung Vit); d. Oct. 23, 1833, in Th Ðc (Nam Vit) He was the captain of the Emperor Minh-Mng's bodyguard. As a Christian he became attached to the MEP. He was arrested in 1832, degraded, and suffered for months before he was beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: Oct. 22.

Cam, Dominic (Ðaminh Cm), priest, Dominican tertiary; b. at Cm Chương, Bc Ninh, Tonkin; d. 3 March 1859, at Hưng Yên, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Can Nguyen, Francisco Javier (Francis Xavier Can, Phanxicô Xaviê C[symbol omitted]n), lay catechist; b. 1803 at Sơn Miêng (Son-Mieng), Hà Ðông, West Tonkin; d. Nov. 20, 1837, at Ô C[symbol omitted]u Giy, Tonkin. He was a catechist for the fathers of the MEP. Strangled in prison. Beatified 1900.

Canh Luong Hoang, José (Joseph Canh, Giuse Hoàng Lương Cnh), physician, Dominican Tertiary; b. ca. 17631765 at Làng Văn, Bc Giang, Tonkin; d. Sept. 5, 1838, at Bc Ninh, Tonkin. Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Castađeda, Jacinto (Jacinto Castaneda Gia), Dominican priest; b. 1743 at Jávita (Valencia), Spain; d. Nov. 7, 1773 at Ð[symbol omitted]ng Mơ, Tonkin. After his profession as a Dominican, he was sent to the Philippines. An extant account tells of the difficulties of their sailing across the Atlantic, their march across Mexico, and a difficult final voyage across the Pacific. When they finally arrived, Manila was in the hands of the English. After months of searching for his Dominican brothers, he located the community and was ordained. Thereafter he travelled by ship another 66 days to China, from where he was deported to Tonkin. His ministry lasted for only a very short time before he was arrested and imprisoned for three years. He was beheaded with Vincent Liêm. Beatified 1906.

Chieu van Do, Francisco (Francis Chieu, Francis Do van Chieu, Phanxicô Ð Văn Chiu), Dominican tertiary, Castadlay catechist; b. ca. 179697 at Trung L, Liên Thy, Nam Ðinh, Tonkin; d. June 12, 1838 at Nam Ðnh. Francis aided the Dominican priests in their Vietnamese mission. He was captured in the village of Kiên-Lao with Bishop Dominic Henares, whom he was serving as catechist, and beheaded with him. His remains were also retrieved by Christians seeking their preservation. Beatified 1900. Feast: June 25.

Con, John Baptist (Gioan Baotixita Cn), married man, lay catechist; b. 1805 at K Bàng, Nam Ðnh (near Hanoi, Tonkin); d. Nov. 8, 1840, at By Mu, Tonkin. Beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: Nov. 7.

Cornay, Jean-Charles (John Cornay, John Corny, Jean-Charles Cornay Tân), priest; b. 1809 at Loudun (Poitiers), France; d. Sept. 20, 1837, at Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). Cornay worked in Annam (Vietnam) as a member of the MEP. He was arrested at B n-no, Tonkin. He had been framed by the wife of a brigand chief, who had planted weapons in a plot of land that he cultivated. Thereafter Cornay was kept in a cage for three months and taken out only to be bound and brutally beaten. He was compelled to use his fine voice to sing to his captors. Beatified 1900. Feast: Feb. 8.

Cuénot, Étienne-Théodore (Stephen Cuénot, Étienne-Théodore Cuénot Th), bishop, vicar apostolic; b. 1802 at Beaulieu, Besaňon, France; d. Nov. 14, 1861, at Bình Ðnh, Cochin-China (Nam Vit). He was ordained, became a member of the MEP, and was sent to Annam (Vietnam). In 1833, he was appointed vicar apostolic of East Cochin-China and consecrated bishop in Singapore. He labored in the missions, establishing three vicarates during his 25-year episcopate. When the persecutions heightened he was safely hidden until he had to emerge for water at which time he was arrested. He died of dysentery just before the edict for his execution arrived. Beatified 1909. Feast: Feb. 8.

Dac Nguyen, Matthew (Matthew Nguyen van Phuong, Matthew Phung, Matthêô Nguyn Văn Ðc (Phương), lay catechist; b. ca. 1801 at K Lai (Ke-lay), Qung Bình (Trung Vit); d. May 26, 1861, near Ð[symbol omitted]ng-Hi (Trung Vit). Like Andrew Dung-Lac, he used an alias. Beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Da, Peter (Peter Da, Phêrô Ða), lay catechist; b. at Ngc Cc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 17, 1862, in Nam Ðnh. He was burnt alive in a bamboo hut with two Catholic fishermen. Beatified 1951.

Dat Dinh, Domingo Nicolás (Dominic Nicholas Dat, Ðaminh Ðinh Ðt), soldier; b. 1803 in Phú Nhai, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. 18 July 1838, in Nam Ðnh. When it was discovered that Dominic was a convert to Christianity, he was arrested, and stripped of his military position for embracing the faith. He may have been a Dominican tertiary. Strangled. Beatified 1900.

Dat, Juan (John Dat, Gioan Ðt), priest; b. ca. 1764 in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Chui, Thanh Hóa (Trung Vit); d. Oct. 28, 1798, in West Tonkin. Ðt, described as a man of great serenity, was ordained to the priesthood in 1798. Following his arrest as an outlawed priest, he was held in captivity for three months, then beheaded. He and Emmanuel Triu were the first Vietnamese diocesan priests for whose martyrdom a written account has been preserved. Beatified 1900.

De Van Nguyen, Tomás (Thomas De, Tôma Nguyn Văn Ð), tailor, Dominican tertiary; b. 1810, in B[symbol omitted] Trang, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. 19 Dec. 1839, in C Mê, Tonkin. He was strangled with four Dominic Uy, Francis Xavier Mu, Stephen Vinh, and another companion for giving shelter to the missionaries. Beatified 1900.

Delgado y Cebrian, Ignacio (Ignatius Delgado, Clemente Ignatius Delgado, Clementé Ignaxiô Delgado Hy); Dominican bishop of East Tonkin; b. ca. 1761 at Villa Felice, Spain; d. July 21, 1838, at Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Most of the information on Delgado derives from the decree of condemnation. After professing himself as a Dominican, he was sent to the Tonkinese mission, where he labored for nearly 50 years and was appointed vicar apostolic of East Tonkin. He had been hidden in the village of Kien-Lao until he was betrayed through the artful questioning of a young boy. The bishop was locked in a cage. When questioned he answered truthfully about himself but would reveal nothing about other Christians. For this the 76-year-old bishop died of dysentery and hunger in a cage exposed to the summer sun. After his death soldiers cut off his head and tossed his remains into the river, where they were recovered by fishermen and honorably buried by Jerome Hermosilla. Beatified 1900. Feast: July 11.

Diaz Sanjurjo, José (Joseph Diaz, Giuse Maria Diaz Sanjuro An), Dominican bishop, vicar apostolic; b. 1818 at Santa Eulalia de Suegos, Lugo, Spain; d. July 20, 1857 in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. His parents had determined that he would have a successful career using his literary skills. He secretly entered the Dominicans at Ocada, Spain. There he was trained for the missions. He made his vows at Cadiz prior to undertaking the 120-day voyage to Manila, where he was assigned teaching duties at the University of Santo Tomás. After six months, he entered Tonkin with Melchoir Garcia-Sampedro under the cover of night disguised in native dress. Shortly thereafter, Diaz was appointed vicar apostolic of Central Tonkin with Garcia as his coadjutor. Although the Christian community tried to hide them as the persecution intensified. Sanjuro was arrested in a surprise raid and imprisoned for two months during which he demonstrated his forgiveness of his betrayer. He was beheaded and his body thrown into the sea. Beatified 1951.

Dich Nguyen, Anthony (Anthony Nguyen Dich, Antôn Nguyn Ðích), farmer; b. in Chi Long, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Aug. 12, 1838, By Mu, Tonkin. Anthony used his wealth from agriculture generously to assist the work of the MEP. He was arrested for sheltering priests, including James Nam, who were fleeing government persecution. Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Diem The Nguyen, Vincent (Vinh Sơn Nguyn Thế Ðim), priest; b. 1761 at An Ðô, Qung Tr (Trung Vit); d. Nov., 28. 1838, at Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hi (Trung Vit). Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Du Viet Dinh, Tomás (Thomas Du, Tôma Ðinh Viết D), priest, Dominican tertiary; b. 1774 at Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Nov. 26, 1839, at By Mu, Tonkin. After his ordination Thomas worked in the Province of Nam-Ðnh. He underwent horrible tortures before he was beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: May 31.

Due Van Vo, Bernardo (Bernard Vo van Due, Bênađô Võ Văn Du), priest; b. 1755 at Qu[symbol omitted]n Anh, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Nov. 26, 1838, at Ba Tòa, Tonkin. Bernard converted to the faith, studied in the seminary, and was ordained. After laboring for many years in the mission, Bernard retired. He was living quietly until he felt called to offer himself to the soldiers as a Christian priest. Beheaded at age 83. Beatified 1900. Feast: August 1.

Dumoulin-Borie, Pierre (Peter Dumoulin, Phêrô Dumoulin-Borie Cao), missionary priest of the MEP; b. 1808 at Cors (diocese of Tulle), France; d. Nov. 24, 1838, at Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hi (Trung Vit). Peter studied for the priesthood in Paris, was ordained in 1832, and sent to Tonkin. He was arrested in 1836. While in prison he was appointed vicar apostolic and titular bishop of Western Tonkin, but was never consecrated. Beatified 1900.

Dung Lac An Tran, Andrew (Anrê Tr[symbol omitted]n An Dũng (Lc), priest; b. ca. 1795 in Bc Ninh, Tonkin; d. Dec. 21, 1839, C[symbol omitted]u Giy, Tonkin. When Dũng An Tr[symbol omitted]n was 12, his family moved to Hanoi (Hà-Ni) to find work. His non-Christian parents allowed their son to receive instruction from a lay catechist so that he might benefit from the education generally denied the poor. He was baptized Andrew at Vnh-Tri. He studied Chinese and Latin, served as a catechist for ten years, and then was ordained to the priesthood in 1823. He was a tireless preacherboth by word and examplein several parishes until his arrest in 1835 as a Christian. His parishioners gathered the money needed to purchase his release. Thereafter, he changed his name from Dũng to Lc in order to disguise his identity and went to another area to continue his ministry. On Nov. 10, 1839, he was again arrested with another Vietnamese priest, Peter Thi. Both were freed once ransom was paid on their behalf, but they were soon arrested again and taken to Hanoi, where priests of the MEP were singled out for especially harsh punishment. Beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast formerly on December 26.

Dung Van Dinh, Peter (Phêrô Dũng), lay catechist;b. in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hào, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. June 6, 1862, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Duong, Paul (Paul Dong, Phalô Vũ Văn Dương (Ðng), layman; b. 1792 at Vc Ð[symbol omitted]ng, Hưng Yên, Tonkin; d. June 3, 1862, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Duong Van Truong, Peter (Peter Truong Dang Duong, Phêrô Trương Văn Ð[symbol omitted]ng), lay catechist; b. 1808 at K S, Hà Nam, Tonkin; d. Dec. 18, 1838, at Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). He was strangled together with another catechist, Peter Trut. Beatified 1900.

Duong, Vincent (Vinh-sơn Dương), layman; b. in Doãn Trung, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. June 6, 1862, at Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Fernández, José (Joseph Fernández, Giuse Fernández Hi[symbol omitted]n), Dominican priest; b. 1775 at Ventosa de la Cueva, Spain; d. July 24, 1838 in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. After his profession as a Dominican friar, he studied in the seminary expressly to serve in the Vietnamese mission. In 1805, he was sent to Tonkin, where he was ordained. He was appointed provincial vicar there and arrested shortly thereafter. Beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: July 11.

Gagelin, François (Francis Isidore Gagelin, François-Isidore Gagelin Kính), priest; b. 1799 at Montperreux (Besaňon), France; d. Oct. 17, 1833 in Bãi Dău (B[symbol omitted]ng Sơn). Belonged to the MEP. Sent to Cochin-China (Nam Vit) in 1822 (age 23), where he was ordained to the priesthood upon his arrival. He worked zealously until the outbreak of persecution, when he gave himself up to the mandarin of B[symbol omitted]ng Sơn and was strangled. Beatified 1900.

Gam Van Le, Matthew (Matthew Le van Gam, Matthêô Lê Văn Gm), merchant; b. ca. 1812 in Gò Công, Biên Hòa, Cochin-China (Nam-Vit); d. May 11, 1847, in Ch[symbol omitted] Ðũi (Nam Vit). As a dedicated member of the MEP, he carried the missionaries in his fishing boat from Singapore to Annam (Vietnam). He was captured in this illegal act in 1846, imprisoned, tortured, and beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: May 26.

Garcia Sampedro, Melchoir (Melchior Garcia-Sampedro Xuyên), Dominican, vicar apostolic; b. 1821 at Cortes, Asturias, Spain; d. July 28, 1858, in Nam Ðnh. Melchoir was born into a poor family that was unable to provide him with an education. He earned his way through school by teaching grammar to younger students. He opted to become a Dominican (1845) and was prepared for the missions at the novitiate at Ocada. He went to the Philippines, and then to Tonkin in an arduous journey (with José Diaz Sanjurjo). Shortly after their arrival Garcia was named coadjutor to Diaz, the vicar apostolic. While Gracia wanted to proclaim publically that he was a priest, the local Christian community convinced him that his presence with them was needed, and they kept him in hiding. Evenutally Garcia was found, arrested, and put in a cage with two native brothers. He was hacked to death, the brothers beheaded, and their remains were thrown into a ditch. Some of their relics were recovered. Beatified 1951.

Gil de Federich, Francisco (Francis Gil, Phanxicô Gil de Fedrich Tế), Dominican priest; b. 1702 in Tortosa, Cataluda, Spain; d. Jan. 22, 1745 at Thăng Long, Tonkin. Francis was educated in Barcelona and became a Dominican there before being sent to the Philippines. In 1732, he continued on to Tonkin, where he was arrested in 1742. During his confinement Gil directed a fruitful apostolate, then he was beheaded. He is the earliest martyr of whom there is substantial documentation. Beatified 1906. Feast: Jan. 29.

Hanh Van Nguyen, Domingo (Dominic Du, Dominic Nguyen van Hanh, Ðaminh Nguyn Văn Hnh), Hnh is his alias; his real name is Domingo D, Dominican priest; b. 1772 in Năng A, Ngh An (Trung Vit); d. Aug. 1, 1838, in Ba Tòa, Tonkin. He ministered as a priest to persecuted Christians for decades before his arrest and execution as a Christian at age 67. Beatified 1900.

Hanh, Paul (Phaolô Hnh), layman; b. 1826 in Ch[symbol omitted] Quán, Gia Ðnh, Cochin-China; d. May 28, 1859 near Saigon (Ho-Chi-Minh City). He abandoned formal practice of his faith to join a band of outlaws, although he secretly assisted the Christian community. When he was arrested for his crimes, he professed his faith and, after torture, was beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Henares, Domingo (Dominic Henarez, Ðaminh Henares Minh); Dominican auxiliary bishop; b. 1765 in Baena, Cordova, Spain; d. June 25, 1838, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. He was appointed bishop-coadjutor (1803) to Ignatius Delgado, vicar apostolic of Tonkin. After working for about 50 years in Vietnam, Bishop Henares hid himself in the village of Kiên-Lao with his bishop during a renewed outbreak of persecution. He managed to escape immediate arrest by hiding himself in a fishing boat. The boatman betrayed him, and a detachment of 500 soldiers Quán, Gia Ði was sent to arrest Henares and his catechist Francis Chiu. They were kept separate from Delgado and beheaded two weeks after their bishop's death. His body was recovered and buried by Hermosilla. Beatified 1900.

Hermosilla, Jeronimo (Jerome Hermosilla, Jêrônimô Hermosilla Liêm), Dominican bishop East Tonkin; b. 1880 at Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Old Castile, Spain;d. Nov. 1, 1861, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. After his profession as a Dominican, he was sent to Manila, where he was ordained. In 1828, he was appointed to the mission at East Tonkin. In April 1841, he succeeded Ignatius Delgado as vicar apostolic and consecrated bishop, which marked him for persecution. Nevertheless, he was able to serve his flock for 20 years. As his first episcopal task, he gathered the relics of his two predecessors and recorded the eyewitness accounts of their martyrdoms. After many trials and the loss of some of his finest supporters, Hermosilla was betrayed by an apostate. He and Berrio-Ochoa had been hidden aboard a ship that would take them to a group of Christians. They were captured, humiliated, and finally beheaded. Their bodies were guarded for several days to prevent Christians from rescuing the relics. Beatified 1906.

Hien Quang Do, José (Joseph Hien, Joseph Yen, Giuse Ð Quang Hin), Dominican priest; b. 1775 in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Chui, Ninh Bình, Tonkin; d. May 9, 1840, at Nam-Ðnh, Tonkin. Beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: June 27.

Hieu Van Nguyen, Peter (Peter Nguyen van Hieu, Phêrô Nguyn Văn Hiếu, lay catechist; b. 1783 in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Chui, Ninh Bình, Tonkin; d. there on April 28, 1840. His attachment to the MEP led to his beheading during the persecution of Minh-Mng. Beatified 1900.

Hoa Dac Phan, Simon (Simon Phan Dac Hoa, Simon Phan Dac Thu, Simon Phan Ðc Hòa), lay physician; b. 1778 in Mai Vĩnh, Th[symbol omitted]a Thiên (Trung Vit); d. Dec. 12, 1840, in An Hòa (Trung Vit). In addition to serving his community as a doctor, Simon was mayor of his native village. A married man with 12 children, he also assisted the evangelization efforts of the MEP. He persisted in coming to the aid of the persecuted clergy, which led to his arrest, torture, and execution. Beatified 1909.

Hoan trinh Doan, John (John Doan trinh Hoan, Gioan Ðoàn Trinh Hoan), priest; b. ca. 1790 at Kim-Long, Th[symbol omitted]a Thiên (Trung Vit); d. May 26, 1861 near Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hi (Trung Vit). He received his education from the missionaries ministering in his land, continued his education through the seminary, and was ordained. Beheaded under King T-Ðc. Beatified 1909.

Huong Van Nguyen, Lawrence (Lorenzo Huong, Laurensô Nguyn Văn Hưng), priest; b. ca. 1802 in Ki Sài, Hà Ni, Tonkin; d. Feb. 10, 1855 or 56, near Ninh-Bình, West Tonkin. Beatified 1909. Feast: April 27.

Huy Viet Phan, Augustin (Augustine Phan Viet Huy, Augustinô Phan Viết Huy), soldier; b. 1795 in H Linh, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 12, 1838, Tha Thiên (Trung Vit). Beatified 1900. Feast: June 13.

Huyen, Dominic (Ðaminh Huyn), layman; b. 1817 in Ðông Thành, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. June 5, 1862, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Hy-Dinh-Ho, Michael (Michael Ho dinh Hy, Micae H[symbol omitted] Ðình Hy), mandarin (high government official); b. ca. 1808 at Nhu Lâm (Nhu-lam); d. May 22, 1857 at An-Hòa near Huế (Trung Vit). Michael was born into a noble, Christian family. He became a great mandarin and superintendent of the royal silk mills. For a long time he did not practice his faith, but eventually he became a leader and protector of his fellow-Christians. Beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Jaccard, François (Francis Jaccard, Phanxicô Jaccard Phan), priest; b. 1799 at Onnion, Annecy, Savoy, France; d. Sept. 21, 1838, at Nhan Bi[symbol omitted]u (Trung Vit). He entered the seminary for MEP in Paris, was ordained, and was sent to Cochin-China (Nam Vit) in 1826. Strangled. Beatified 1900.

Kham Viet Pham, Dominic (Dominic An-Kham, Ðaminh Phm Viết Khm), judge, Dominican tertiary; b. 1799 at Qu[symbol omitted]n Cng, Nam Ðnh ; d. Jan. 13, 1859 in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. He was a wealthy, respected member of the community, as well as the prior of the Dominican Confraternity. He died with his son and several other wealthy members of the Confraternity who were protecting missionaries. Beatified 1951.

Khang Duy Nguyen, Jose (Joseph Klang, Giuse Nguyen Duy Khang), servant, Dominican tertiary; b. 1832 at Trà Vi (Tra-vi), Nam-Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Dec. 6, 1861, at Hi Dương, Tonkin. Joseph was Bishop Hermosilla's servant. While trying to rescue his master from prison, he was caught, tortured, and finally beheaded. Beatified 1906.

Khanh, Peter (Phêrô Khanh), priest; b. 1780 at Hòa Du, Ngh An (Trung Vit); d. July 12, 1842, Hà Tĩnh (Trung Vit). Beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Khoan Khan Pham, Paul (Phaolô Phm Khc Khoan), priest; b. 1771 in Duyên Mu, Ninh Bình, Tonkin; d. there, April 28, 1840. Paul studied with the MEP, was ordained, and labored with the missionaries for 40 years. He was imprisoned and tortured for two years prior to his decapitation. Beatified 1900. Feast: April 28.

Khuong, Thomas (Thomas Huong, Tôma Khuông), priest, Dominican tertiary; b. 1789 at Nam Hào, Hưng Yên, Tonkin; d. there Jan. 30, 1860. Son of a mandarin, he suffered great tortures before his death. Beatified 1951.

Phung van Le, Emmanuel (Manuel Phung, Emmanuel Lê Văn Phng), mandarin, catechist; b. 1796 at Ð[symbol omitted]u-Nưc, Cù Lao Giêng (Nam Vit); d. July 31, 1859, near Châu Ðc (Nam Vit). Emmanuel was the father of a family. Garrotted. Beatified 1909.

Lenziniana, Mateo Alonzo (Matthew Leziniana, Matthew Liciniana, Matthêô Alonzo-Leciniana Ðu), Dominican priest; b. 1702 at Navas del Rey (Valladolid), Spain; d. Jan. 22, 1745, at Thăng Long, Tonkin. Matthew was sent to Philippines after his ordination, then to Tonkin. There he ministered furtively to the Christian community while dodging the authorities for 13 years. He was beheaded with Francisco Gil and is one of the earliest of the canonized martyrs of Vietnam. Beatified 1906.

Liem de la Paz, Vicente (Vincent Liem da Pace, Vinh-sơn Lê Quang Liêm), Dominican priest; b. 1732 in Trà Lũ, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Nov. 7, 1773, in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Mơ, Tonkin. Vincent was born into the nobility of Tonkin. He labored as a priest for 14 years with Dominican Bishop Hyacinth Casteđeda prior to his arrest and execution by decapitation. Liêm is the first Indo-Chinese Dominican known to be martyred for the faith. Beatified 1906. Feast: November 7.

Loan Ba Vu, Luke (Luke Vu Ba Loan, Luca Vũ Bá Loan), priest; b. 1756 in Tri Bút, Phú Ða, Tonkin; d. June 5, 1840, at Ô C[symbol omitted]u Giy, Tonkin. Luke was raised in a Christian family. He ministered for decades to a people who revered him; beheaded for his priesthood. Beatified 1900. Feast: June 4.

Loc Van Le, Paul (Paul Lok, Paul Le van Loc, Phaolô Lê Văn Lc), priest; b. ca. 1830 at An Nhơn, Gia Ðnh; d. Feb. 13, 1859 at Gia Ðnh (Saigon or Ho-Chi-Minh City). He served in the army prior to entering the seminary; beheaded shortly after his ordination to the priesthood. Beatified 1909.

Luu van Nguyen, Joseph (Joseph Nguyen van Luu, Giuse Nguyn Văn Lu), lay catechist; b. ca. 1790 at Cái-Nhum (Nam Vit); d. May 2, 1854 or 55, at Vĩnh-long (Nam Vit). He died in prison from torture and abuse. Beatified 1909.

Mao Trong Ha, Dominic (Dominic Mao, Ðaminh Ma), layman; b. 1818 in Ngc Cc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 16, 1862, in Làng Cc, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Marchand, Joseph (Giuse Marchand Du), priest; b. 1803 at Passavant, Besaňçon, France; d. Nov. 30, 1835, in Th[symbol omitted] Ðúc near Saigon (Ho-Chi-Minh City). Joseph completed his theological studies at the seminary of (Nam Vie MEP, was ordained, and sent to Annam (Vietnam). He was arrested at Saigon. Beatified 1900.

Mau, Dominic (Dominic Mau, Ðaminh M[symbol omitted]u), Dominican priest; b. 1808 in Phú Nhai, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin;d. Nov. 5, 1858, in Hưng Yên, Tonkin. He died after a long torture. Beatified 1951.

Mau, Francisco Javier (Francis Xavier) (Phanxicô Xaviê Hà Trng Mu), Dominican tertiary, catechist; b. 1790, in K Đi[symbol omitted]u, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. Dec. 19, 1839, in C Mê, Tonkin. He was strangled with four companions, including Stephen Vinh and Dominic Uy. Beatified 1900.

Moi Van Nguyen, Agustín (Augustine Moi, Augustinô Nguyn Văn Mi), day-laborer, Dominican tertiary;b. 1806 at Phù Trang, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Dec. 19, in C Mê, Tonkin. Agustín was known for his piety and charity, though a poor man himself. Strangled. Beatified 1900. Feast: Dec. 18.

Minh Van Phan, Philip (Philip Phan van Minh, Philiphê Phan Văn Minh), priest; b. 1815 in Cái Mơn, Vĩnh Long (Caimon); d. July 3, 1853, at Ðinh Khao. Philip joined the MEP and was ordained a priest for East Cochin-China (Mi[symbol omitted]n Tây Nam Vit). Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

My Huy Nguyen, Michael (Michael Mi, Michael Nguyen Huy My, Micae Nguyn Huy M), married farmer; b. 1804 in K Vĩnh, Hà Ni, Tonkin; d. Aug. 12, 1838, in By Mu, Tonkin. Michael had been mayor of Vĩnh-Tri, where several of the saints were arrested. He served the Church faithfully, but gave special assistance to Anthony Ðích, his son-in-law, to protect the missionaries during the persecution. When Ðích tried to hide Fr. James Năm in 1838, they were all arrested and beheaded. Beatified 1900.

My Van Nguyen, Paul (Paul Mi, Phaolô Nguyn Văn M), layman; b. 1798 at K Non, Hà Nam, Tonkin; d. Dec. 18, 1838, at Sơn Tây. He was attached to the MEP. Strangled. Beatified 1900.

Nam, James (Jacob Nam, James Mai Nami, Giacôbê Ð Mai Năm), priest; b. 1781 in Ðông Biên, Thanh Hóa (Trung Vit); d. Aug. 12, 1838, in By Mu, Tonkin. James, a priest attached to the MEP, found refuge from persecution for a long period in the home of Anthony Ðích. He was discovered and both were arrested together with Anthony's father-in-law, Michael M. Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Néron, Pierre-François (Peter Francis Néron, Phêrô Phanxicô Néron Bc), priest; b. 1818 at Bornay, Saint-Claude (Jura), France; d. Nov. 3, 1860, in Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). He entered the MEP in 1846, was ordained two years later (1848), and sent to Hong Kong. He labored in West Tonkin as director of the central seminary until his arrest and decapitation. Beatified 1909.

Ngan Nguyen, Paul (Phaolô Nguyn Ngân), priest; b. 1771 in K Biên, Thanh Hóa (Trung Vit); d. Nov. 8, 1840, in By Mu, Nam-Ðnh, Tonkin. Beatified 1900.

Nghi, José (Joseph Nien Kim, Joseph Nguyen Dinh Nghi, Giuse Nguyn Ðình Nghi), priest; b. 1771 in K V[symbol omitted]i, Hà Ni, Tonkin; d. Nov. 8, 1840 in By Mu, Tonkin. He was beheaded because he was a member of the MEP. Beatified 1900.

Ngon, Lorenzo (Lawrence Ngon, Laurensô Ngôn), layman; b. at Lc Thy, Nam Ðnh; d. May 22, 1862, in Ðnh. Beatified 1951.

Nguyen, Domingo (Dominic Nguyen, Ðaminh Nguyn), layman; b. 1802 in Ngc Cc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 16, 1862, in Làng Cc, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Nhi, Domingo (Dominic Nhi, Ðaminh Nhi), layman;b. at Ngc Cc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 16, 1861, in Làng Cc, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Ninh, Dominic (Ðaminh Ninh), layman; b. 1835 in Trung Linh, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 2, 1862, at An Triêm. Beatified 1951.

Nguyen, Huu Nam Anthony (Anthony Quynh-Nam, Antôn Nguyn Hu Qunh), physician, lay catechist; b. 1768 in M Hương, Qung Bình (Trung Vit); d. July 10, 1840, Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hi (Trung Vit). He was arrested in 1838 because of his attachment to the MEP. During his two-year imprisonment he tended the inmates and endured tortures. Strangled. Beatified 1900. Feast: November 24.

Nguyn Văn Lu (Luu, Peter) Phêrô, priest; b. 1812 at Gò Vp, Gia Ðnh (Nam Vit); d. April 7, 1861, at M Tho (Nam Vit). Beatified 1909.

Nguyen, Van Vinh, Esteban (Stephen Vinh, Stephanô Nguyn Văn Vinh), lay catechist, Dominican tertiary; b. 1814 in Phù Trang, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Dec. 19, 1839, at C Mê, Tonkin. Devout peasant; strangled with 4 companions, including Thomas Ð. Beatified 1900.

Pham, Trong Ta Joseph (Joseph Cai Ta, Cai T, Giuse Phm Trng T), soldier; b. 1800 at Qu[symbol omitted]n Cng, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Jan. 13, 1859, in Nam Ðnh. Tortured to death. Beatified 1951.

Quy Cong Doan, Pedro (Peter Qui, Phêrô Ðoàn Công Quý), priest; b. 1826 in Búng, Gia Ðnh (Nam Vit); d. July 31, 1859 in Châu Ðc (Nam Vit) Beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Schoeffler, Agustin (Augustine Schoeffler Ðông), priest, Dominican tertiary; b. 1822 at Mittelbronn (Nancy) Lorraine, France; d. May 1, 1851 in Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). Augustine joined the MEP and was sent to Vietnam in 1848. He labored in the missions for only a short time before his arrest and beheading. Beatified 1900.

Ta, Duc Thinh, Martin (Matthew Ta Duc Thinh, Martin Thinh, Martinô T Ðc Thnh), priest; b. 1760 in K St, Hà Ni, Tonkin; d. Nov. 8, 1840, in By Mu, Tonkin. Martin, a member of the MEP, labored for decades as a priest to his own people. Beheaded with Martin Th. Beatified 1900.

Thanh Van Dinh, Juan-Baptist (John Baptist Thanh, Gioan B. Ðinh Văn Thành), lay catechist; b. 1796 in Nn Khê, Ninh Bình, Tonkin; d. April 28, 1840, Ninh Bình. He was beheaded with Peter Hiếu and Paul Khoan because of his attachment to the MEP. Beatified 1900.

Thanh Thi Le, Inés (Agnes De, Inê Lê ThThành [Bà Ðe]), married woman; b. 1781 at Bái-Ð[symbol omitted]n, West Tonkin;d. July 12, 1841, at Nam-Ðnh. She was born into a Christian family and was the mother of six. She was caught carrying letters from the Christians in prison and arrested. Died in prison. Beatified 1909. Feast: Feb. 18.

Thé, Nicolás (Nicholas Duc Bui, Nicholas Bui Buc The, Nicôla Bùi Ðc Thế), soldier, b. 1792 in Kiên Trung, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 12, 1838, at Th[symbol omitted]a Thiên (Trung Vit). Beatified 1900. Feast: June 13.

Thi Dang Le, José (Joseph Le dang Thi, Giuse Lê Ðăng Thi), soldier; b. 1825 at K Văn, Qung Tr (Trung, Vit); d. Oct. 25, 1860 at An-Hòa (Trung Vit). A captain in the army of King T-Ðc. Once it was discovered that he was a Christian and he refused to deny his faith, he was garrotted. Beatified 1909. Feast: Oct. 24.

Thi Văn Truong, Pedro (Peter Pham Thi, Phêrô Trương Vŭn Thi), priest; b. 1763 at K S, Hà Ni, Tonkin; d. Dec. 21, 1839, at Ô C[symbol omitted]u Giy, Tonkin. Beheaded. Beatified 1900. Feast: December 20.

Thien van Tran, Tomás (Thomas Tran Dien, Thomas Tran van Thien, Tôma Tr[symbol omitted]n Văn Thin), seminarian, lay catechist; b. 1820 at Trung Quán, Qung Bình (Trung Vit); d. Sept. 21, 1838, in Nhan Bi[symbol omitted]u (Trung Vit). He was studying with MEP, preparing for ordination at the time of his arrest. After being scourged, he was strangled at the age of 18. Beatified 1900. Feast: September 21.

Thin Trong Pham, Luca (Lucius Cai Thin, Luca Phm Trng Thìn), layman; b. 1819 in Qu[symbol omitted]n Cng, Nam Ðnh ; d. Jan. 13, 1862, in Nam Ðnh. Beatified 1951.

Tho, Martin (Martinô Th), tax collector; b. 1787 at K Bàng, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Nov. 8, 1840, in By Mu, Tonkin. Martin, the head of his parish council, was martyred with Martin Tinh, an 80-year-old native priest, and Joseph Nghi. Beatified 1900.

Thong Kim Nguyen, Andrew (Andrew Thong Kim Nguyen, Anrê Nguyn Kim Thông (Năm Thuông), politician, lay catechist; b. ca. 1790 in Gò Th, Bình Ðnh (Trung Vit); d. July 15, 1855, in M Tho (Mi[symbol omitted]en Tây Nam Vit). Andrew, the chief of his village, was exiled at the beginning of the persecution because of his devotion to the Catholic faith. He died from exhaustion and dehydration en route to exile at M-Tho. Beatified 1909. Feast: February 18.

Thuan, Peter (Phêrô Thu[symbol omitted]n), fisherman; b. at Ðông Phú, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. June 6, 1862, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Burnt alive with Peter Ða. Beatified 1951.

Tinh Bao Le, Paul (Paul Le Bao Tinh, Phaolô Lê Bo Tnh), priest; b. 1793 at Trinh-Hà, Tonkin; d. April 6, 1857 at Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). He wrote a letter to the seminary of K Vĩnh in 1843 detailing the sufferings of Christian prisoners. Beheaded. Beatified 1909. Feast: April 6.

Toai, Domingo (Dominic Toai, Ðaminh Toái), fisherman; b. 1811 in Ðông Thành, Thái Bình, Tonkin; d. June 5, 1862, in Nam Ðnh, Tonkin. Burnt alive with Peter Ða and Peter Thu[symbol omitted]n. Beatified 1951.

Toan, Tomás (Thomas Toan, Tôma Toán), Dominican tertiary, lay catechist; b. 1767 in C[symbol omitted]n Phan, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 27, 1840, in Nam Ðnh. Although he was teaching the faith to others, Thomas's faith waivered. After showing signs of apostatizing, he repented. In consequence, he was tortured and starved to death. Beatified 1900.

Trach, Domingo (Dominic Doai, Ðaminh Trch (Ðoài), priest, Dominican tertiary; b. 1792 in Ngoi B[symbol omitted]i, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Sept. 18, 1840, at By Mu, Tonkin. Dominic, a native Dominican priest, had labored to evangelize his own land until his arrest. The following year Dominic was given the choice to renounce the faith and go free or suffer death. He confessed and encouraged his friends before his own beheading. Beatified 1900.

Tran, van Tuan Joseph (Giuse Tuân), Dominican priest; b. 1821 in Trân Xá, Hưng Yên, Tonkin; d. there April 30, 1861, after a long torture. Beatified 1951.

Trieu van Nguyen, Manuel (Emmanuel Nguyen van-Trieu, Emmanuel Nguyn Văn Triu), priest; b. ca. 1756 in Saigon (Ho-Chi-Minh City), Phú Xuân, Huế; d. Sept. 17, 1798, in Bãi Dâu (B[symbol omitted]ng Sơn). Emmanuel, who had been born into a Christian family, joined the army. Later he was ordained to the priesthood at Pong-King and worked with his brother priests in the Paris Foreign Mission Society. He was arrested while visiting his mother and beheaded, becoming one of the first Vietnamese diocesan priests to die for the faith. Beatified 1900.

Trong Van Tran, Andrew (Andrew Tran van Trong, Anrê Tr[symbol omitted]n Văn Trông), soldier; b. 1817 in Kim Long, Huế (Trung Vit); d. Nov. 28, 1835 at An Hòa, Huế. Trong was a young native soldier or silk-weaver to the king of Annam (Vit Nam) and attached to the MEP. When this affiliation was discovered by the authorities in 1834, he was arrested, stripped of his military rank, and imprisoned. Beatified 1900. Feast: November 18.

Truat Van Vu, Peter (Peter Truat, Phêrô Vũ Văn Trut), lay catechist; b. 1816 in K Thiếc, Hà Nam, Tonkin; d. Dec. 18, 1838, in Sơn Tây (West Tonkin). Beatified 1900.

Trung Van Tran, Francisco (Francis Tran van Trung, Phanxicô Tr[symbol omitted]n Văn Trung), soldier; b. 1825 in Phan-Xã; d. May 2, 1858, at An-Hòa (Trung Vit). Francis was a corporal in the army, who converted to Christianity. Beheaded. Beatified 1909. Feast: October 6.

Tu Khac Nguyen, Pedro (Peter Tu, Phêrô Nguyn Kh Tư:), lay catechist; b. 1811 in Ninh Bình, Tonkin;d. July 10, 1840, in Ð[symbol omitted]ng Hi (Trung Vit). Beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Tu Van Nguyen, Peter (Phêrô Nguyn Văn T), Dominican priest; b. 1796 in Ninh C[symbol omitted]ng, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Sept. 5, 1838, in Bc. Ninh, Tonkin. Beatified 1900.

Tuan, Joseph (Giuse Tuân), layman; b. 1825 in Nam Ði[symbol omitted]n, Nam Ðnh; d. Jan. 7, 1862, in Nam Ðnh. Beatified 1951.

Tuan Ba Nguyen, Pedro (Peter Tu, Phêrô Nguyn Bá Tu[symbol omitted]n), priest; b. 1766 in Ngc Ð[symbol omitted]ng, Hưng Yên, Tonkin; d. July 15, 1838, at Ninh Tai, Nam Ðnh. Beatified 1900.

Tuc, Joseph (Giuse Túc), layman; b. 1852 in Hoàng Xá, Bc Ninh, Tonkin; d. there on June 1, 1862. A child of 9 who was martyred for the faith. Beatified 1951.

Tuoc, Domingo (Dominic Tuoc, Ðaminh Tưc), priest; Dominican tertiary, b. 1775 in Trung Lao, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. April 2, 1839, in Nam Ðnh. Dominic from wounds in prison. Beatified 1900.

Tuong, Andrew (Andrew Thuong, Anrê Tưng), lay catechist; b. 1812 in Ngc Cúc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 16, 1862, in Làng Cc, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Tuong, Vincent (Vincent Truong, Vinh-Sơn Tưng), judge, layman; b. 1814 in Ngc Cc, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 16, 1862, in Làng Cc, Tonkin. Beatified 1951.

Tuy Le, Pedro (Peter Tu, Peter Le Tuy, Phêrô Lê Tùy), priest; b. 1773 in B[symbol omitted]ng S, Hà Ðông (West Tonkin); d. Oct. 11, 1833, in Quan Ban. Arrested after many years of ministry and beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Uyen Dinh Nguyen, José (Joseph Nguyen Dinh Uyen, Joseph Peter Uyen, Joseph Yuen, Joseph Uen,

Giuse Nguyn Ðình Uyn), Dominican tertiary, lay catechist; b. ca. 1775 in Ninh C[symbol omitted]ng, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. July 4, 1838 in Hưng Yên, Tonkin. After a year's tortuous imprisonment, he was strangled in his cell. Beatified 1900. Feast: July 3.

Van Van Doan, Peter (Peter Doan van Van, Phêrô Ðoàn Văn Vân), lay catechist; b. ca. 1780 in K Bói, Hà Nam, Tonkin; d. May 25, 1857, at Sơn-Tây, West Tonkin. Beheaded. Beatified 1909.

Vénard, Jean-Théophane (Théophane Vénard, Giuse Theophanô Vénard Ven), priest; b. Nov. 21, 1829 in St.Loup-sur-Thouet (Deux-Sèvres), Poitiers, France; d. Feb. 2, 1861, in Ô C[symbol omitted]u Giy, Tonkin. This son of the village schoolmaster studied at the College of Doue-la-Fontaine, and at the seminaries at Montmorillon and Poitiers, where he was ordained subdeacon (1850). He transferred to the MEP (1851), was ordained priest on June 5, 1852, and departed for Hong Kong on September 19. After fifteen months studying Vietnamese at Hong Kong he arrived (1854) secretly at his mission in West Tonkin, where the Christians had recently been tried by a series of persecutions under Minh-Mng. In 1856, he was expelled from Nam-Ðnh and went to Hanoi. Shortly after Vénard's arrival a new royal edict was issued against Christians; bishops and priests were obliged to seek refuge in caves, dense woods, the hulls of sampans, and elsewhere. Vénard, whose constitution had always been delicate, suffered almost constantly, but continued to exercise his ministry at night, and, more boldly, in broad day because he was greatly impressed by the courage of the Vietnamese Catholics who had been suffering since 1848. On Nov. 30, 1860, he was betrayed by a Christian and captured at Kim Bàng. Tried before a mandarin, he refused to apostatize and was sentenced to be beheaded. While chained in a tiny bamboo cage, he wrote to his family beautiful and consoling letters.

Vien Dinh Dang, Joseph (Joseph Dang Dinh Vien, Joseph Nien, Giuse Ðng Ðình Viên), Dominican tertiary, lay catechist; b. ca. 1786 in Tiên Chu, Hưng Yên, Tonkin; d. Aug. 21, 1838, in By Mu, Tonkin. Beatified 1900.

Võ Dăng Khoa, Pedro (Peter Khoa), priest; b. 1790, in Thun Nghĩa, Ngh An (Trung Vit); d. Nov. 24, 1838 at Ð[symbol omitted]ng-Hi. Strangled. Beatified 1900.

Xuyen Van Nguyen, Domingo (Dominic Doan, Dominic Xuyen, Ðaminh Nguyn Văn Xuyên), Dominican priest; b. ca. 1787 in Hưng Lp, Nam Ðnh, Tonkin; d. Nov. 26, 1839, in By Mu, Tonkin. Beheaded with Thomas D. Beatified 1900. Feast: Oct. 26.

Yen Do, Vicente (Vincent Do Yen, Vinh Sơn Ðo Yến), Dominican priest; b. ca. 1764 in Trà Lũ, Nam Thomas Du Ðnh, Tonkin; d. June 30, 1838, in Hi Dương, Tonkin. After becoming a Dominican in 1808, he labored in the mission field until his martyrdom. From the publication of the edict of persecution in 1832, he lived 6 years in hiding and continued to minister secretly. He was finally betrayed and beheaded. Beatified 1900.

Bibliography: b. bloomfield, Martyrs of Vietnam (London 1995). m. j. dorcy, Saint Dominic's Family (Dubuque, IA 1963) 49899, 5069, 51113. v. gomez, Pedro Almato y Ribera, OP, Martir del Vietnam: Letters to Family and Friends (Valencia 1987). K Yếu Phong Thánh T' Ðo Vit Nam (Canonization of The Vietnamese Martyrs), prepared by the Canonization Committee (Vatican City 1989). Mission Étrangères de Paris, Le Clergé Annamite et ses Prêtres Martyrs (Paris 1925). b. t. nguyn Les Martyrs de l'Annam, (Hanoi 1937). v. t. tr[symbol omitted]n, Histoire des Persecutions au Vietnam, (Paris 1955). v. n. t. tr[symbol omitted]n, Giáo Hi Vit Nam; Tp 1: V Án Phong Thánh (Vietnamese Church, Vol 1: Canonization Proceeding; Vietnam 1987). v. y. trnh, Máu T Ðo Trên Ðt Vit Nam (Blood of the Martyrs in the Land of Vietnam; National Canonization Committee, U.S.A., 1987). Witnesses of the Faith in the Orient (Hong Kong 1989).

[thu bui/

k. i. rabenstein]

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