TURKA, city in Lvov district, W. Ukraine. Jews first settled in Turka in the early 19th century when the city was under Austrian rule. They engaged in trading in forest products, the manufacture of building materials, shopkeeping, and crafts – tailoring, shoemaking, carpentry, and transportation. In the second half of the 19th century the ḥasidic groups of *Belz and Sadgora had great influence within the community. On the eve of World War i, M. Landes, the Jewish representative on the city council, was mayor. Between the two world wars, when Turka was incorporated into Poland, Zionist parties were active, including Agudat Israel, Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir, and Agudat Akiva. Among Jewish educational institutions were the Degel Torah yeshivah, and *Tarbut and *Beth Jacob schools. The community founded a new orphanage in 1927. The Jewish population numbered 2,368 (51% of the total) in 1890, 2,892 (48%) in 1900, 4,887 (45%) in 1910, 4,201 (42%) in 1921, and 4,117 in 1931. The mayor of Haifa, Abba *Khoushi, was born in Turka.
[Shimon Leib Kirshenboim]
Before the outbreak of World War ii, there were about 6,000 Jews in Turka. On Sept. 17, 1939, the Red Army entered the town and a Soviet administration was established there until the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in June 1941. The Germans occupied the town at the beginning of July 1941. The first Aktion took place in January 1942, when about 500 Jews were killed. In August 1942 about 4,000 Jews were deported to the *Belzec death camp. The Jewish community was liquidated in December 1942, when the Jews were transported to the *Sambor ghetto, where they were killed together with the local Jews. After the war, the Jewish community was not reconstituted. An organization of former residents of Turka is active in Israel.
B. Wasiutyński, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 124, 128, 155, 157; Almanach gmin żydowska w Polsce (1938), index; S. Bronsztejn, Ludność żydowska w Polsce w okresie międzywojennym (1963), 279; I. Zigelman (ed.), Turka: Sefer Zikkaron (Heb. and Yid., 1966).
"Turka." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/turka
"Turka." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/turka
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.