Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto and Gebhard
TRUCHSESS VON WALDBURG, OTTO AND GEBHARD
Prominent ecclesiastics from a princely German family whose ancestral seat was the city of Ravensberg.
Otto. Cardinal, bishop of Augsburg, and leader in Tridentine reform; b. Scheer Castle, near Sigmaringen, Feb. 25, 1514; d. Rome, April 2, 1573. During his studies at the Universities of Tübingen, Padua, Pavia, and Bologna, he counted as his student friends Alessandro farnese, Cristofero madruzzo, and Stanislaus hosius, themselves later figures in the movement for Church reform. Otto held benefices at Augsburg (1526), Speyer (1529), and Trent (1540), and rose in the diplomatic service, becoming papal chamberlain to Paul III (1540), councilor of Emperor Charles V (1541), and bishop of Augsburg (1543). The next year Paul III created him a cardinal priest with the title of St. Balbina. He initiated reforms in his diocese, held synods (1543, 1548, 1567), and founded an academy (later the university), and a seminary at Dillingen (1549), which he entrusted to the care of the Jesuits. His interest in the Society of Jesus and its place in Catholic reform led to his friendship with the Jesuits, Claude le jay (jajus), Robert bellarmine, and Peter canisius. Although he failed to erect a Jesuit college at Augsburg, he became a patron of the establishment of the German College at Rome.
As imperial councilor, he championed Catholicism and opposed the schmalkaldic league (1531–47) and the articles of the Peace of Augsburg (1555). This position and his appointment as protector of the Empire by Charles V earned him the hostility of the Protestants and forced him to live mostly at Rome (1559–63; 1568 to his death). In 1562 he was made bishop of Albano, and he succeeded to the sees of Sabina and Palestrina (1570). During the third period of the Council of Trent (1562–63) he was an ardent promoter of legislation for the erection of seminaries.
Gebhard. Archbishop of Cologne; b. Scheer Castle, Nov. 10, 1547; d. Strassburg, May 31, 1601. He was the nephew of Otto and destined for an ecclesiastical career. When 13 years old he held a benefice in the cathedral of Augsburg, later becoming a canon there (1567), at Cologne (1568), and at Strassburg (1574). On Dec. 5, 1577, amid tense political feeling, he was elected to the arch-bishopric of Cologne (12 votes to 10) against Ernest of Bavaria (1554–1612), youngest son of Albrecht of Bavaria. His choice was confirmed by Rome as well as by the imperial electoral college. It was hoped that Gebhard would plan a program of reform after the pattern of his uncle Otto, but after 1579 he kept a mistress, Countess Agnes von Mansfeld, and in an attempt to legalize this union, he sought the support of Johann Casimir, the Calvinistic Count Palatine. He married Agnes on March 2, 1583, and tried to secularize Cologne by making it a free religious city. Following his excommunication by Gregory XIII, April 1, 1583, a new election brought Ernest of Bavaria to the vacated see. Gebhard opposed the new archbishop's Bavarian troops with the aid of Johann Casimir and William of Orange (the Cologne War), but in 1589 he retired to Strassburg where he resided until his death.
Bibliography: otto. b. schwarz, Kardinal Otto, Truchsessv. Waldburg (Hildesheim 1923). b. duhr, "Die Quellen zu einer Biographie des Kardinals Otto Truchsess von Weldburg," Historisches Jahrbuch der Görres-Gesellschaft 7 (1886) 177–209; 20 (1899) 71–74. h. jedin, History of the Council of Trent, tr. e. graf,v. 1–2 (St. Louis 1957–60), v.3; Geschichte des Konzils von Trient, 2 v. (Freiburg 1949–57; v.1, 2d ed. 1951) v.1. f. siebert, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. m. buchberger, 10 v. (Freiburg 1930–38) 10:723–725. l. pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, 40 v. (London-St. Louis 1938–61) v.12–19, 20, 23. gebhard. m. lossen, Der kölnische Krieg … (Gotha 1882). g. schreiber, ed., Das Weltkonzil von Trient, 2 v. (Freiburg 1951) v.2. h. jedin, History of the Council of Trent, tr. e. graf, v. 1–2 (St. Louis 1957–60), v.3; Geschichte des Konzils von Trient, 2 v. (Freiburg 1949–57; v.1, 2d ed. 1951) v.2. l. pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, 40 v. (London-St. Louis 1938–61) v.19, 20, 22.
[e. d. mcshane]