TOBY, JACKSON (1925– ), U.S. criminologist and sociologist. Toby received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1950. He taught at Brooklyn College, n.y., and at Harvard. He then took on the position of professor of sociology at Rutgers University, where he became chairman of the Sociology Department in 1961. He specialized in problems of adolescence and deviant behavior and was chief consultant to the Ford Foundation youth development program (1959–63). In 1966 he prepared a report on "Affluence and Adolescent Crime" for the President's Law Enforcement Commission. He served as director of the Institute for Criminological Research at Rutgers from 1969 to 1994. His subsequent research focused on undergraduate education and the causes of and remedies for school violence.
His publications include Social Problems in America (with Harry C. Bredemeier, 1960); Contemporary Society: Social Process and Social Structure in Urban Industrial Societies (1964); The Evolution of Societies (with T. Parsons, 1977); and Higher Education as an Entitlement (2005).