Skip to main content



TAV (Taw ; Heb. ת;תָּו), the twenty-second and the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet; its numerical value is 400. The basic pictographic shape of this letter consisted of two strokes crossing each other or , i.e., the simplest mark and hence its name taw. While in the Proto-Canaanite and in the early Phoenician scripts, until the tenth century b.c.e., both the x-shaped and the cross-shaped taw were used; in the ninth century b.c.e. the letter's stance was stabilized. The Hebrew script preserved the x-shaped and did not alter its form, but in the Samaritan script it became . On the other hand, the late Phoenician script adopted and developed the cross-shaped taw → → . and in the Aramaic script it evolved as follows: → → . The last form was the prototype of the Jewish taw and Arabic which developed through the Nabatean → → . The Greek (and Latin) "T" is a variation of the cross-shaped taw. See *Alphabet, Hebrew.

[Joseph Naveh]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Tav." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 19 Jan. 2019 <>.

"Tav." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (January 19, 2019).

"Tav." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved January 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.