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Storozhinets

STOROZHINETS

STOROZHINETS (Rom. Storojineţ ; Ger. Storozynetz ), city in Chernovtsy district, Ukraine, in the historic region of Bukovina; until World War i, within Austria, and between the two world wars within Romania. Jews settled there at the close of the 18th century, but severe restrictions imposed by the Austrian authorities hindered the expansion of the Jewish settlement. The number of Jews nevertheless increased, mainly as a result of immigration from Galicia and Russia. In 1865, a Jew of Galician origin, who had established himself in the town in 1828, received a royal authorization, the first of this category to be granted there, to acquire real estate and trade without restriction. The Jewish population numbered 1,601 (32.9% of the total) in 1880, and 4,832 (48.3%) in 1910. The local Jews mainly engaged in commerce and industry connected with the products of the forest in the vicinity, and in timber processing, as well as in crafts and the liberal professions. At the beginning of the 20th century, 99% of the tailors, shoemakers, and carpenters of the town were Jews. Communal institutions were organized as the Jews became established. From 1890, the community was reorganized in accordance with the Austrian law concerning the communities which then came into force. A large main synagogue was erected at the beginning of the 20th century. There were also many ḥasidic and other houses of prayer. The members of the community, most of whom were Ḥasidim, belonged to various trends of Ḥasidisim, principally *Vizhnitsa and Sadagora. The community also had ḥadarim and yeshivot, but from 1871 many Jewish children also attended the general schools. In 1909 the community established a private Jewish secondary school for boys and girls that functioned, with a few interruptions, until 1938. In World War i, many Jews left the town during the fighting in the area. After the war, under Romanian rule, community life again flourished despite the antisemitic and oppressive regime. Zionist organizations were active there between the two world wars. Jews took part in municipal life.

Holocaust and Contemporary Periods

In 1940, Storozhinets was occupied by the Red Army. Many Jews lost their property as a result of nationalization, and relations between the local Jewish Communists and the other members of the community became strained. In 1941, the town was restored to the Romanian authorities, then collaborating with the Germans, During that year, most of the 2,482 Jews in the town were deported to the death camps in *Transnistria.

After World War ii, at the commencement of the Soviet regime, a small number of Jews still remained in the town but this number subsequently declined.

bibliography:

H. Gold, Geschichte der Juden in der Bukowina, 2 (1962), 108–13.

[Yehouda Marton]

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