SINGER, JOSEPH (1797–1871), Austro-Hungarian soldier. Born in Lemberg, Galicia, he was one of the first Jewish career officers in the Austro-Hungarian Army and fought against Napoleon in Italy. In 1832 as captain he was attached to the general staff of Field Marshal Radetzky. He fought in the Italian campaign of 1847/48. When Field Marshal Hess succeeded Radetzky in command of the Austrian army in Italy, Singer was appointed his chief of staff. He was promoted to field marshal-lieutenant in 1859. Throughout his life, Singer remained a Jew, and did not succumb to pressure to convert. On his death he received a state funeral.