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SHTERN , Canadian family consisting of a father and four sons, all of whom have made their mark in Jewish literature. The most important of them, however, Ya'akov adopted the name *Zipper. All were born in Tyszowce, Poland.

abraham david shtern (1878–1955) became a dayyan and shoḥet in his native town. In 1938, he immigrated to Canada and was appointed rabbi of the Zeirei Dat Vadaat Congregation of Montreal. He published three volumes of essays on biblical and ḥasidic themes, in a mixture of Hebrew and Yiddish: Edut be-Yisrael (1943); Kevuẓat Kitvei Aggadah (1947); Ḥutim ha-Meshulashim (1953), which are of considerable value from the point of view of both scholarship and folklore. sholem shtern (1907– ), a Yiddish poet and literary writer, immigrated to Canada in 1927. He was associated with the radical movement for many years, contributing to its Yiddish press, mostly on literary subjects. This association ceased, however, when the fate of Jewish writers and intellectuals under Stalin became known. His collections of poetry include Nuntkejt (Toronto, 1929) and In der Fri (Montreal, 1945). His two-volume novel in Yiddish verse In Canada (Montreal, 1960–63), is an unusual literary record of the Canadian scene. Another book, Das Vayse Hoyz (New York, 1967), was translated into Hebrew by Shimshon *Meltzer, under the title Ha-Bayit ha-Lavan be-Harim (Tel Aviv, 1972). Sholem Shtern's poetry and criticism of Yiddish writing have been widely published in important journals in Poland, the Argentine, Australia, Romania, South Africa, France, and Israel, as well as in Canada and the United States. He is represented in various anthologies and on recordings. yehiel shtern (1903– ), educator and author, graduated from the Jewish Teachers' Seminary of Vilna, and taught in Poland before immigrating to Canada in 1936. There he became associated with the Peretz schools in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, and Montreal successively. His Kheder un Bes Medresh (New York, yivo, 1950) won the Lamed Prize. israel hirsch shtern (1914– ), poet and mathematician, graduated from the Vilna ORT school. After settling in Canada in 1937, he received his doctorate in mathematics from McGill University, where he was appointed associate professor of mathematics (1961–66); he also taught at Loyola College, Montreal (1966–69). Israel Shtern has written poetry in Yiddish and English, much of it under the pseudonym Ish Ya'ir. His collection entitled Fables appeared in England in 1967, and his Out of the Burning Bush in 1968. Much of his Yiddish work has been published in the United States, but he has also written English verse published in the smaller journals of England, Italy, India, Switzerland, the Philippines, Brazil, and Greece.

[David Rome]