Bishop of Durham; b. York, England; d. Rome, Jan. 14, 1493. He received degrees from Cambridge University and a doctorate in theology from Oxford (by 1460). Proficiency in Latin letters helped him win the favor of George Neville, Bishop of Exeter, later Archbishop of York. This association existed in 1460, when Shirwood became chancellor of Exeter cathedral. In 1484 he received the bishopric of durham by papal provision. His preferment to high Church office reflects the favor not only of Neville but also of King Edward IV. Beginning in 1477, he served as king's advocate at the Curia. He enjoyed also the favor of King Richard III. His career suffered from the victory of King Henry VII (1485), but eventually he won the new ruler's confidence, again becoming advocate at Rome in 1492. Shirwood first attracted Neville's attention through his humanistic scholarship (see humanism). He was one of the first English humanists to master Greek. His Latin poetry is lost, but his Liber de ludo arithmomachia, describing a board game, was printed in 1482. He made an important collection of manuscripts and printed books, emphasizing the Greek and Latin classics.
Bibliography: a. b. emden, A Biographical Register of the Scholars of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500, 3 v. (Oxford 1957–59) 3:1692–93. e. i. carlyle, The Dictionary of National Biography from the Earliest Times to 1900, 63 v. (London 1885–1900) 18:146. r. weiss, Humanism in England during the Fifteenth Century (2d ed. Oxford 1957). p. s. allen, "Bishop Shirwood of Durham and His Library," English Historical Review 25 (1910) 445–456. b. behrens, "Origins of the Office of English Resident Ambassador in Rome," English Historical Review 49 (1934) 640–656.
[c. g. nauert, jr.]
"Shirwood, John." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 17, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shirwood-john
"Shirwood, John." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shirwood-john
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.