SCHRAMECK, ABRAHAM (1867–1948), French politician. Schrameck was born in Saint Etienne into a family of Alsatian Jews. His grandfather was a soldier in Napoleon's army. He was made chef de cabinet to the Paris chief of police, following the government decision to order a retrial of *Dreyfus. He achieved a considerable reputation as an administrator in preventing serious disorders and was subsequently appointed secretary-general of the Bouches-du-Rhône department which included Marseilles, then harried by criminal gangs. Once more Schrameck carried out his task with distinction and was later made prefect of the Tarn-et-Garonne and Bouches-du-Rhône districts. In 1914 Schrameck was appointed governor general of Madagascar, where he suppressed German plots against the French administration and organized the supply of materials for the Allies from the island. He also introduced economic reforms which increased the loyalty of the natives to France. Schrameck returned to France in 1920 and sat until 1940 as a senator for the Bouches-du-Rhône department. He was twice minister of the interior and was also minister of justice and a member of several Senate committees. A professing Jew, he vigorously defended the Jewish cause.