Skip to main content

Schapiro, Jacob Salwyn


SCHAPIRO, JACOB SALWYN (1879–1973), U.S. historian. Born in New York State, Schapiro taught history at City College, n.y. from 1909 until his retirement in 1947, and rose to the rank of full professor (1922). Schapiro's principal interest was 19th-century European history, with emphasis on intellectual history.

His major works are Social Reform and the Reformation (1909); Condorcet and the Rise of Liberalism (1934); Liberalism and the Challenge of Fascism (1949); and World in Crisis (1950), an analysis of political and social movements in the 20th century. He is also author of Liberalism: Its Meaning and History (1958), Movements of Social Dissent in Modern Europe (1962), and Anticlericalism (1967). His Modern and Contemporary European History (1918) was one of the first textbooks to treat history as the evolution of civilization, embracing social, economic, intellectual, and literary developments, and it had a marked influence on a generation of college students. Many revised editions have appeared.

[Oscar Isaiah Janowsky]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Schapiro, Jacob Salwyn." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . 22 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Schapiro, Jacob Salwyn." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . (April 22, 2019).

"Schapiro, Jacob Salwyn." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved April 22, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.