Theologian; b. Horb, Germany, March 4, 1841; d. Tübingen, June 1, 1905. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Tübingen (1861–65). In 1866 he was ordained and became a doctor of philosophy. He was professor of mathematics and natural sciences in Rottweil in 1872, and in 1876 he was professor of the exegesis of the New Testament in Tübingen. In 1883 he succeeded his teacher, J. kuhn, as professor of dogma and apologetics. Schanz's commentary on the fourth Gospel (1879–85) is written in a philological and historicalcritical method. He does not penetrate the theological and dogmatic content of Holy Scripture. His apologetics and dogmatics are determined by the positivism of exegesis and the history of dogma. The proof of each dogma is brought from Scripture and tradition, and its historical development is shown. His sacramentology (1893), too, follows this method. Numerous essays in the Theologische Quartalschrift are devoted to sacramentology. In his life he demonstrated an independence of understanding and judgment and a reserve in giving his views that sprang from his irenic nature. His chief works were Die Lehre von den heiligen Sakramenten der katholischen Kirche (Freiburg 1893) and the three-volume Apologie des Christentums (Freiburg 1887–88).
Bibliography: w. koch, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. m. buchberger, 10 v. (Freiburg 1930–38) 9:218–219. h. hurter, Nomenclator literarius theologiae catholicae, 5 v. in 6 (3d ed. Innsbruck 1903–1913); v.1 (4th ed. 1926) 5.2:1896–97.
[j. r. geiselmann]