Cardinal, first apostolic delegate to the U.S.; b. Marsciano, near Perugia, Italy, July 21, 1839; d. Rome, Jan. 8, 1910. After ordination (1862), he received a doctorate at the Sapienza University, Rome; went to teach in the seminary at Perugia (1864); became pastor in his native town (1870); and joined the Benedictines at monte cassino (1872–74). He was professor of theology in Rome at the College of Propaganda (1880–92), and also at the Roman Seminary (1882–86). He became rector of the Greek College in Rome (1884), and president of the Pontifical Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics (1886–92), where he also lectured on Canon Law. He played an important part in the development of neoscholasticism and thomism promoted by Leo XIII, both in the classroom and as the author of several once-influential theological works. In 1888 he became titular archbishop of Lepanto. Satolli came to the U.S. in 1889 as papal ablegate for the centenary celebration in Baltimore of the establishment of the hierarchy in the U.S. and he also delivered an address at the inauguration of The catholic university of america. On his second visit, in 1892, he represented the Pope at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, acted as ablegate to settle educational problems with the hierarchy, and lectured on philosophy at The Catholic University. When the permanent apostolic delegation in the u.s. was created (January 1893), he was given the post and held it until October 1896, when he returned to Rome as archpriest of the Lateran Basilica (1896) and prefect of the Congregation of Studies (1897). On the occasion of the St. Louis Exposition (1904) he made his final visit to the U.S. His addresses in the U.S. were collected and published in Loyalty to Church and State (1895).
Bibliography: j. t. ellis, The Life of James Cardinal Gibbons, 2 v. (Milwaukee 1952).