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Satanov

SATANOV

SATANOV , town in Khmelnitsky district, Ukraine; until 1793 within Poland. A Jewish community was organized there in the second half of the 16th century, after Podolia was incorporated within the kingdom of Poland. The Jews of Satanov engaged in the import of goods from the east, leasing of estates and customs dues, manufacture of alcoholic beverages (see *Wine and Liquor Trade), and goldsmithery. The town and its Jewish community suffered periodically from the incursions of the Tatars and Cossacks, in particular from their combined attacks in 1651 and from the Cossacks in 1703. The magnificent synagogue in Satanov was built in the form of a fortress, so that Jews would be able to defend themselves in such attacks. During the 18th century Satanov was the leading community in Podolia. Its dayyanim held a trial of the *Frankists there in 1756. In 1765 there were 1,369 Jews paying the poll tax in Satanov. Until the incorporation of Satanov within Russia in 1793, the Jews there took part in the international commerce, traveling to the fairs of *Leipzig, *Breslau, and *Frankfurt.

The Hebrew writer and maskilIsaac *Satanow lived in the town and was active there in the second half of the 18th century, as was Menahem Mendel (Lefin) *Levin (1749–1826), among the pioneers of the *Haskalah in Eastern Europe, and Alexander b. Ẓevi Margaliot (d. 1802), author of Teshuvot ha-Re'em, who was rabbi of Satanov. From the end of the 18th century and during the 19th, Satanov was an important center of *Ḥasidism. Until 1862 Jewish settlement there was restricted by the authorities, owing to the proximity of the town to the Austrian border. The Jewish population numbered 2,848 (64% of the total) in 1897. In 1919 the Jews in Satanov suffered from *pogroms at the hands of the Ukrainian nationalists. Satanov probably had 2,359 Jews in 1926, then declining to 1,516 (40% of the total population). A rural Jewish council existed in the Soviet period. The Germans entered Satanov on July 6, 1941. On May 14, 1942, they locked 240 Jews in a cellar, letting them choke to death. Through 1942, 210 Jews were shot to death. Most of the 800 people officially murdered by the Germans were Jews.

bibliography:

Halpern, Pinkas, 75, 94, 416f.; M. Balaban, Żydzi lwowscy na przełomie xvigo i xviigo wieku (1906), 53f., 399; idem, Le-Toledot ha-Tenu'ah ha-Frankit, 1 (1934), 118–27; R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index; S. Lłastik, Z dziejów oświecenia żydowskiego (1961), 90f.; E. Tcherikower, Di Ukrainer Pogromen in Yor 1919 (1965), 145.

[Shimshon Leib Kirshenboim /

Shmuel Spector (2nd ed.)]

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