SALOMON, ALICE (1872–1948), German economist and educator. Born in Berlin of a merchant family that had settled in north Germany in the 18th century, Alice Salomon converted to Protestantism at the beginning of World War i. She was active mainly in the training of women for professional social work and their inclusion in that field. In 1908 she founded in Berlin a school for that purpose, which she directed until 1924. Expelled from Germany in 1937, she went to England and from there to the U.S., where until her death she continued her literary activity in the field of the social education of the woman and the protection of the working woman. Although she was not a suffragette in the political sense, she was active in the women's international movement. She founded and directed the Konferenz sozialer Frauenschulen Deutschlands, the Deutsche Akademie fuer soziale und paedagogische Frauenarbeit, and the Internationales Komitte sozialer Schulen. She was vice president of the International League of Women.
She wrote many books which became classics of social work: Die Ursachen der ungleichen Entlohnung von Maennerund Frauenarbeit (1906); Einfuehrung in die Volkswirtschaftslehre (1909, 19215); Die Ausbildung zum sozialen Beruf (1927); Leitfaden der Wohlfahrtspflege (1921, 19283). Her autobiography was published many years after her death, first in German translation as Charakter ist Schicksal (1983, 1984), and later in the English original, Character is Destiny (2004). Salomon's collected works were published in three volumes under the title Frauenemanzipation und soziale Verantwortung (1997–2003).
H. Muthesius (ed.), Alice Salomon: die Begruenderin des sozialen Frauenberufes in Deutschland (1958), includes bibliography of her writings. add. bibliography: J. Wieler, Erinnerung eines zerstoerten Lebensabends (1987); R. Orywa and A. Droege (eds.), Alice Salomon in ihren Schriften (1989); M. Berger, Alice Salomon (1998); A. Feustel, in: Frauen Erinnern (2000), 111–27; C. Kuhlmann, Alice Salomon (2000); A. Schueler, Frauenbewegung und soziale Reform (2004).
[Shalom Adler-Rudel /
Noam Zadoff (2nd ed.)]