Péreire, Émile (Jacob; 1800–1875) and Isaac (1806–1880)
PÉREIRE, ÉMILE (Jacob; 1800–1875) and ISAAC (1806–1880)
PÉREIRE, ÉMILE (Jacob ; 1800–1875) and ISAAC (1806–1880), French economists, bankers, and journalists. The Péreire brothers were the grandsons of Jacob Rodrigues *Péreire. Born and educated in Bordeaux, both became prominent disciples of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de St. Simon, and his socioeconomic system. After the dispersion of the St. Simonians, the Péreires turned to political and economic writing, and during the 1830s their articles in Le Globe, Le Temps, and Le Journal des Débats attracted much attention. Emile's emphasis on railway development led James de *Rothschild to finance the Chemin de Fer du Nord and half a dozen other railway lines. In 1848 the Péreires gave up their cooperation with the Rothschilds and joined the *Foulds. Four years later, together with the Foulds and many other leading French financiers and politicians, they formed the Credit Mobilier, France's first modern investment bank. After spectacular initial successes the bank's fortunes sank with the Second Empire, and it was liquidated in 1867. Both Péreires were members of the French parliament and active in Jewish affairs.
In 1832 Emile edited the St. Simonian Globe and, from 1832 to 1835, Le National, the organ of the republican party. A boulevard in Paris was named after him. Isaac wrote Leçons sur l'industrie et les finances (1832), Le rôle de la Banque de France (1864), Principe de la constitution des banques (1865), and La question réligieuse (1878). In the late 1870s Isaac published his own paper, La Liberté, in which he advanced his political and industrial views. Isaac's son eugene (1831–1908), a civil engineer, railway administrator, and banker, was a member of the Chamber of Deputies and active in Jewish affairs. He inherited his grandfather's interest in the education of deaf-mutes.
C.H. Castille, Les Frères Péreire (1861); M. Aycard, Histoire du Crédit Mobilier (1867); B. Mehrens, Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der grossen franzoesischen Kreditinstitute (1911); P.H. Emden, Money Powers of Europe (1938), index; H. Spiel, Fanny von Arnstein, oder Die Emanzipation (1962).
[Joachim O. Ronall]