German cardinal, archbishop; b. Münster in Westphalia, Jan. 6, 1813; d. Rome, Dec. 14, 1895. The Church-State conflict in Cologne (see cologne, mixed marriage dispute in) led him to abandon the legal profession and study for the priesthood. After ordination (1841), he became vicar-general of Münster (1852); bishop of Osnabrück (1857) as well as vicar apostolic for the northern missions, to which he devoted special pastoral care; and archbishop of cologne (1866). At vatican council i he was a leader in the minority group of bishops that considered a definition of papal primacy and infallibility inopportune, but he subscribed without hesitation to the conciliar decisions. His conscientious measures against the theology professors in his diocese who continued to oppose the definitions brought on him calumniations from the old catholics. During the early
years of the kulturkampf, which he had sought vainly to avert, he was the prudent leader of the Prussian hierarchy, along with his friend Bp. Wilhelm von Ketteler. After spending several months in prison (1874), Melchers was forced to leave Germany (1875) and to administer his see from nearby Maastricht in the Netherlands. To facilitate a settlement, he resigned his see at Pope Leo XIII's request (1885) and became a cardinal (1885) in the Roman Curia, where his influence was slight. In 1892 he joined the Jesuits.
Bibliography: f. p. e. cronenberg, Geschichte der Erzdiözese Köln (Cologne 1882) 850–889. j. b. kissling, Geschichte des Kulturkampfes im deutschen Reiche, 3 v. (Freiburg 1911–16). a. constabel, Die Vorgeschichte des Kulturkampfes (Berlin 1956). j. metzler, Die Apostolischen Vikariate des Nordens (Paderborn 1919) 192–196. e. c. butler, The Vatican Council, 1869–1870, 2 v. (New York 1930). r. lill, Die ersten deutschen Bischofskonferenzen (Freiburg 1964).
"Melchers, Paulus." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 25, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melchers-paulus
"Melchers, Paulus." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved March 25, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/melchers-paulus
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.