Skip to main content

Maxwell, Winifred


Countess of Nithsdale, Catholic noblewoman famous for the rescue of her husband from the Tower of London after the Jacobite rising of 1715; b. c. 1678; d. Rome, 1749. Lady Nithsdale, daughter of William, first marquis of Powis, lived with her husband at the family seat of Terregles until his capture following the Battle of Preston. After leaving Scotland for England and pleading in vain with King George I to pardon her condemned husband, the intrepid countess smuggled female attire to him in the tower, and he succeeded in escaping on Feb. 23, 1716. She then hid her husband in London until he made his flight in safety to France. Returning to Scotland, Lady Nithsdale retrieved the family papers that she had hidden there. In these activities she had incurred great personal risk, and the wrathful George I declared she had "done him more mischief than any woman in Christendom." She joined Lord Nithsdale abroad and they traveled to Rome, where they ended their days in exile.

Bibliography: j. b. paul, ed., The Scots Peerage 9 v. (Edinburgh 190414) v. 6. The Dictionary of National Biography from the Earliest Times to 1900 (London 18851900) 13:136. w. fraser, Book of Carlaverock (Edinburgh 1873). m. scott, The Making of Abbotsford and Incidents in Scottish History (London 1897).

[h. f. gretsch]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Maxwell, Winifred." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . 15 Feb. 2019 <>.

"Maxwell, Winifred." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . (February 15, 2019).

"Maxwell, Winifred." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved February 15, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.