Kartell-Convent der Verbindungen Deutscher Studenten Juedischen Glaubens (KC)
KARTELL-CONVENT DER VERBINDUNGEN DEUTSCHER STUDENTEN JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS (KC)
KARTELL-CONVENT DER VERBINDUNGEN DEUTSCHER STUDENTEN JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS (KC ), an umbrella organization of German Jewish student fraternities, founded in 1896. Fraternities of Jewish students were established (the first founded in Breslau, Oct. 23, 1886) in reaction to the mounting wave of antisemitism and the exclusion of Jews from German student fraternities. They adopted from their German counterparts not only the student rituals but also dress, manners, and all their activities. In this way they attempted to establish their equality by outdrinking and outfighting them. Special emphasis was put on Jewish honor in the face of antisemitism, especially the question of "Satisfaktionsfaehigkeit," the right and capability of a Jew to be considered an opponent in a duel. The critical attitude of the kc toward the Jewish nationalist movement and political Zionism led students with differing views, particularly those from Eastern Europe, to found their own organizations, first the two branches of Bund Juedischer Corporationen and the Kartell Zionistischer Verbindungen, later amalgamating into the *Kartell Juedischer Verbindungen (kjv), which focused on the enhancement of Jewish consciousness and Jewish nationalism. Many prominent figures were members of the kc, such as Ludwig *Hollaender, leader of the *Central-Verein. The kc was an association of fraternities at numerous German universities such as Heidelberg, Berlin, Munich, Freiburg, Leipzig, Frankfurt, and others. Membership of the kc increased from 836 in 1913 to approximately 2,100 in 1933. The kc published the kc-Blaetter from 1910 until 1933, when Hitler assumed power and the fraternities were dissolved. Its alumni, the so-called Alte Herren ("Old Boys"), were organized in separate organizations which continued to exist outside Germany after World War ii.
Wiener Library, German Jewry… (1958), index; Asch and Philippson, in: YLBI, 3 (1958), 122–39; A. Asch, Geschichte des kc (Kartellverband juedischer Studenten) im Lichte der deutschen kulturellen und politischen Entwicklung (1964); Kartell-Con-vent Jahrbuch (1906– ); H. Berlak, Kartell Convent der Verbindungen deutscher Studenten juedischen Glaubens… (1927). add. bibliography: K.H. Pickus, Constructing Modern Identities. Jewish University Students in Germany 1815–1914 (1999); M. Ruerup, "Juedische Studentenverbindungen im Kaiserreich. Organisationen zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus auf 'studentische Art,'" in: Jahrbuch fuer Antisemitismusforschung, 10 (2000), 113–137; T. Schindler, Studentischer Anti-semitismus und juedische Studentenverbindungen 1880–1933, (1988); L. Swartout, "Culture Wars. Protestant, Catholic and Jewish Students at German Universities, 1890–1914," in: M. Geyer and H. Lehmnann (eds.), Religion und Nation (2004).
[Miriam Ruerup (2nd ed.)]