JADDUA , high priest in the Second Temple period. Jaddua was a great-grandson of *Eliashib and commenced to minister in the priesthood c. 400 b.c.e. According to Nehemiah 12:11, his father's name was Jonathan, but many are of the opinion that the reading there should be *Johanan, as in Nehemiah 12:22. Josephus (Ant. 11:317–47) tells of a high priest called Jaddua who was a contemporary of Alexander the Great. When Alexander reached Syria, he sent envoys to the high priest requesting him to transfer his allegiance to him, but he refused because of his oath of loyalty to *Darius. This enraged Alexander, who marched against Jerusalem with his army. Jaddua prayed to God and in the night had a dream which gave him courage. He went out to welcome Alexander, clothed in his priestly garments, together with his fellow priests and all the people of Jerusalem, clad in white. When Alexander saw the high priest, he prostrated himself before him, explaining that he was bowing to the God to whom this priest ministered; that the priest had appeared to him in a dream and encouraged him to venture forth against the Persians, and assured him of victory. He subsequently acceded to Jaddua's requests on behalf of the Jews. According to Josephus, Jaddua died a short time after the death of Alexander and transmitted his office to his son Onias. Josephus also states that Manasseh, the son-in-law of Sanballat and the first priest of the Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim, was the brother of Jaddua. It is difficult to reconcile Josephus' statement that Jaddua lived in the time of Alexander with the account in Nehemiah, and it appears that the story is a mere legend attached to the name of Jaddua. In the Talmud a similar story is ascribed to Simeon the Just (Meg. Ta'an. 339–40; Yoma 69a).
Guttmann, in: Tarbiz, 11 (1939/40), 271–94; R. Marcus, in: Loeb Classics, Josephus, 6 (1937), 498–511 (Appendix b); Schalit, in: Sefer Yoḥanan Lewy (1949), 252–72; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 2 (19512), 47, 50, 96, 105.