Skip to main content

Hirszfeld, Ludwik

HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK

HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK (1884–1954), Polish physician, immunologist, serologist, and microbiologist. Hirszfeld, who was born in Warsaw, spent from 1907 to 1911 in Heidelberg where in 1910, in collaboration with the German scientist Emil von Dungern, he demonstrated the heredity of the different blood groups. During his World War i army service in Serbia, Hirszfeld discovered the bacteria of paratyphoid c, which is known as Salmonella hirzfeldi. In 1924 he was appointed professor at the Free University of Warsaw. After the occupation of Poland in World War ii he escaped from the Warsaw Ghetto, and described his experiences in the book Historia jednego życia. In 1945 he organized the faculty of medicine of Wroclaw University where he became professor of microbiology. He also established the Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy. He founded a research center in Wroclaw for the pathology of pregnancy. A member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he introduced the study of seroanthropology in his country. Among Hirszfeld's most important books are Grupy krwi w zastosowaniu do biologji, medycyny i prawa ("Blood Groups in Relation to Biology, Medicine and Law," 1934) and Dochodzenie ojcostwa w świetle nauki o grupach krwi ("The Establishment of Paternity in the Light of the Science of Blood Groups," 1948).

bibliography:

H. Hirszfeldowa et al., Ludwik Hirszfeld (Pol. and Fr., 1956).

[Stefan Lutkiewicz]

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hirszfeld, Ludwik." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Oct. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Hirszfeld, Ludwik." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hirszfeld-ludwik

"Hirszfeld, Ludwik." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved October 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hirszfeld-ludwik

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.