Fridelli, Xaver Ehrenbert (Friedel)
FRIDELLI, XAVER EHRENBERT (FRIEDEL)
China missionary and cartographer; b. Linz, Austria, March 11, 1673; d. Peking, June 4, 1743. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1688 and sailed for China in 1704. A skilled mathematician, he was one of the six to eight Jesuits who, working in groups of two and three, began in 1717 to map the Chinese Empire at the command of the Emperor. Because of the growing distrust of foreigners, the mandarin assistants served more as guards than advisers. Since the Jesuits were not permitted to enter Tibet or Korea, or go near the borders of Russia, they had to accept the information gathered by natives whom they trained for the task. In 1718 the huge map was presented to the Emperor, and later it was reproduced from 48 engraved plates. The work of the Jesuits remained the only reliable map of China until well into the 19th century. In 1720 Fridelli established a school, of which he was rector for six years, and in 1721 he opened St. Joseph's Church in Peking. His missionary work falls within the period of Christian persecution under Emperor Yum Tsching when his diplomacy, high esteem at court, and reputation for scholarship did much to soften the persecution.
Bibliography: c. w. allan, Jesuits at the Court of Peking (Shanghai 1935) 222. a. zerlik, Neue deutsche Biographie 5 (Berlin 1961): 436.
[m. b. martin]
"Fridelli, Xaver Ehrenbert (Friedel)." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fridelli-xaver-ehrenbert-friedel
"Fridelli, Xaver Ehrenbert (Friedel)." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fridelli-xaver-ehrenbert-friedel
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.