Skip to main content

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart°

CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART°

CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART ° (1855–1927), racist, antisemitic author; British by birth, French by upbringing, German by choice. An enthusiastic Germanophile, Chamberlain settled in Bayreuth where he became friendly with Richard *Wagner, whose daughter he married. Influenced by the ideas of *Gobineau, *Lagarde, and Wagner, Chamberlain, who was partially paralyzed and highly neurotic, developed his theory of the supremacy of the "blond, dolichocephalic Nordic." Those of Teutonic race and blood, he considered, were the born leaders of humanity, responsible for everything of value in civilization, while all regressive tendencies stemmed from racial admixture. According to Chamberlain, the Jews are a mongrel race, incapable of creative activity and essentially irreligious, whose existence is a crime against humanity; all the important personalities in early Jewish history, such as King David, the prophets, and Jesus, were of Germanic descent. He found an ardent supporter in Emperor William ii. Chamberlain's Die Grundlagen des 19. Jahrhunderts (1899) became the fount of National-Socialist ideology. He admired Adolf Hitler and they were on friendly terms. Chamberlain is regarded as one of the most influential figures in the evolution of modern antisemitism.

bibliography:

J. Comas, Racial Myths (1951), 36; H.S. Chamberlain, Lebenswege meines Denkens (1919); W.L. Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960), 104–9; F. Heer, Gottes erste Liebe… (1967), index; H. Meyer, Houston Stewart Chamberlain als voelkischer Denker (1939; written from the Nazi viewpoint); Schulmann, in: jqr, 5 (1914/15), 163–200; Kaltenbrunner, in: wlb, 22 (1967/68), 6–12; Real, in: The Third Reich (1955), 243–86. add. bibliography: G.G. Field, Evangelist of Race: The Germanic Vision of Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1981); odnb online.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Chamberlain, Houston Stewart°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Chamberlain, Houston Stewart°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chamberlain-houston-stewartdeg

"Chamberlain, Houston Stewart°." Encyclopaedia Judaica. . Retrieved November 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chamberlain-houston-stewartdeg

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.