Celestine II, Pope

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Pontificate: Sept. 26, 1143 to Mar. 8, 1144; b. Guido de Castellis, presumably at Macerata in the March of Ancona. An admirer and former student of abelard and a learned scholar himself, he was also a friend of peter the venerable of Cluny. Under callistus ii, he was brought to Rome, and he was named cardinal deacon in 1127 and cardinal priest in 1134. As legate and vigorous supporter of innocent ii during the schism with Anacletus (see pierleoni), he was present with bernard of clairvaux in his championship of the pope's claims before roger of sicily. His election without controversy two days after the death of Innocent II was widely acclaimed. Celestine, already an old man, was destined to govern the Church only six months. As cardinal he had opposed Innocent's concessions to Roger of Sicily made in the Treaty of Mignano (1139), but was apparently seeking new negotiations at the time of his death. Following louis vii's abandonment of opposition to the incumbency of Pierre de la Châtre in the See of Bourges, he removed the interdict placed by his predecessor on certain French lands because of Louis VII's attempt to depose the archbishop of Bourges.

Bibliography: Patrologia latina 179:761820. Pontificum romanorum vitae, ed. j. m. watterich, 2 v. (Leipzig 1862) 2:276278. Liber pontificalis, ed. l. duchesne (Paris 18861958) 2:385, 449. p. jadffÉ, Regesta pontificum romanorum ab condita ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum 1198 (Graz 1956) 2:17. h. k. mann, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 190232) 9:102112. p. brezzi, Roma e l'Impero medioevale 7741252 (Bologna 1947). f. x. seppelt, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 195459) 3. w. kurze, "Minute nel fondo del monastero di S. Salvatore al Monte Amiata. Annotazioni critiche sulla tradizione del privilegio di Celestino II del 23 febbraio 1144 (CDA 344)," Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia (1997) 45162. w. petke, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3d. ed. (1995). j. n. d. kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York 1986) 167.

[m. w. baldwin]