BENZINGER, IMMANUEL° (1865–1935), German Protestant theologian and Orientalist. Benzinger was born in Stuttgart and served as lecturer in biblical studies at Berlin University from 1898 to 1902. He taught in Jerusalem at various Christian institutes and at the Ezra Society School from 1902 to 1911. Thereafter he was professor of Bible in Toronto, Canada (1912–15), Meadville, Pa. (1915–18), and Riga, Latvia (from 1921 until his death). His principal work, Hebraeische Archaeologie (1894, 19273), is a comprehensive reference book of biblical archaeology. His Buecher der Koenige (1899) and Buecherder Chronik (1901) are commentaries on the books of Kings and Chronicles. His other major works include Bilderatlas zur Bibelkunde (1905), Geschichte Israels bis auf die griechische Zeit (1904, 19273), and Jahvist and Elohist in den Koenigsbuechern (1921). At the outset of his scholarly career, Benzinger followed the *Wellhausen school of biblical criticism, but later became an adherent of the Pan-Babylonian school.