BENOLIEL , Moroccan family. eliezer, a leading citizen of *Fez (1730), established his family in Gibraltar; there judah (d. 1839) was consul-general of Morocco (1817), the only agent of the sultan in the service of the European powers, signed the treaty with Austria in 1830, and was later the representative of that country. Judah negotiated with Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Belgium and reestablished peace between Sardinia and Morocco. As president of the Gibraltar Chamber of Commerce, he enjoyed the confidence of European financiers. His financial interests were widespread and at his death he left a fortune estimated at about three million gold dollars. He was president of the Jewish community in Gibraltar and founded charitable institutions in Morocco. At his request the sultan authorized the reconstruction of the synagogue in Tangiers. Joseph *Benoliel was a scholar and bibliophile.
J. Davidson, Notes Taken During Travels in Africa (1839), 3–6; H. de La Martinière, Souvenirs du Maroc (1919), 26, 123; Report of Anglo-Jewish Association (1877/78), 113; Miège, Maroc, 2 (1961), 29, 89, 161, 191–3, 249; Kayserling, Bibl, 26–27; A.I. Laredo, Memorias de un viejo tangerino (1935), 262–5.