Batista, Cícero Romão
BATISTA, CÍCERO ROMÃO
Brazilian priest, object of popular devotion; b. Ceará, Brazil, 1844; d. Rome, 1934. He was ordained in 1870 and had manifested mystic tendencies while still in the seminary. As pastor in Juazeiro, Ceará—a poor region, both geographically and culturally isolated, and of old messianic tradition—he worked to invigorate the religious faith of the inhabitants, preaching sermons in which he advised repentance and an ascetic life. The drought of 1877 to 1879 brought many more people to this parish, and his reputation and authority increased. In 1889 there occurred "miracles" with hosts that were transformed into blood. Religious fervor increased, and whole families migrated to Juazeiro. The diocesan bishop condemned the miracles (1891), prohibited the priest from preaching and confessing (1892), and from celebrating Mass (1896). Father Cícero traveled to Rome in 1898, where Leo XIII permitted him to celebrate Mass only in a private oratory. Meanwhile, the popular devotion increased as did the population of Juazeiro. Little by little it became dominated by local politics, and clashes with the governors of the state of Ceará reached the point of armed conflict in which the priest's followers considered themselves supernaturally protected by their "padrinho," Father Cícero. The situation continued until his death. The city of Juazeiro even in 1963 continued to be one of the greatest centers of religious pilgrimage in Brazil because of the legends concerning this priest.
Bibliography: a. f. montenegro, História do fanatismo religioso no Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil 1959).
[j. a. gonsalves de mello]
"Batista, Cícero Romão." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/batista-cicero-romao
"Batista, Cícero Romão." New Catholic Encyclopedia. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/batista-cicero-romao
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.