AVITZUR, SHMUEL (1908–1999), geographer and specialist in cultural studies. Avitzur was born in Russia and immigrated to Ereẓ Israel in 1931. He early evinced an interest in the geography of Ereẓ Israel, on which he taught and lectured and in which he undertook research. His main area of study was the history of daily life in the past and especially methods of work, housing, clothes, food, utensils, and equipment. For that purpose he established a special museum in Tel Aviv, which was the first historical museum in Israel. Avitzur published more than 300 papers, including an atlas on the history of work, equipment, and production facilities in Ereẓ Israel. He was involved in the Sites and Buildings Restoration Council and participated in the establishment of many museums and sites. In 1977 he was awarded the Israel Prize for geography and cultural studies.