Aubrac, Order of
AUBRAC, ORDER OF
Community of hospitallers founded in 1120 by Adalard, Viscount of Flanders, as he was returning from santiago de compostela. At the same time he established the hospital (see hospitals, history of) of Sainte-Marie at Aubrac, on a mountain in Rouergue, 22 km from Espalion, France. In 1162, Peter II, Bishop of Rodez, gave the community a rule based on the Rule of St. augustine; it was confirmed by Pope Alexander III. The community was composed of five groups: priests, knights, lay brothers, oblates, and the women assistants of high birth. Aubrac founded a number of dependent hospitals. Attempts to amalgamate with the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (knights of malta) or with the templars were unsuccessful. In 1477 the monastery was placed in commendation. By 1697 such laxity had set in that the Congregation of France (canons of sainte-geneviÈve of paris) was sent to take over the hospital. The harsh climate forced the canons to withdraw, and in 1699 they were replaced by the Reformed Canons of Chancelade. Aubrac was suppressed by the French Revolution. The religious at Aubrac wore a black cassock with an eight-pointed blue cross at the left side; in choir, they wore a black cowl that bore the same cross.
Bibliography: c. de vic and j. vaissete, Histoire générale de Languedoc, ed. e. dulaurier et al., 16 v. in 17 (2d ed. Toulouse 1872–1904) 4:888–898. p. hÉlyot, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et militaires, 8 v. (Paris 1714–19) 3:169–174. c. belmon, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques 5:256–258. r. chalumeau, Catholicisme 1:1013–14. Archives of Department of Aveyron, ser. G. and H.; Collection Doat.