Tijāniy(y)a

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Tijāniy(y)a. Muslim Sūfī order (ṭarīqa) founded by Abuʾl-ʿ Abbās Aḥmad al-Tijānī (1737–1815 (AH 1150–1230)). He was admitted to the Qādiriy(y)a (and other orders) before founding his own order, based on Fez, having received a direct commission from a vision of the Prophet Muḥammad in the desert. Members of the order are called aḥbāb (‘friends’), and are forbidden to join any other ṭarīqa (order), because their line of descent is directly from Muḥammad, and not via other teachers/guides. They adjusted to W. rule, especially to the French, and are therefore strong in parts of Africa which were formerly French colonies.