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Shādhiliy(y)a. A Sūfī order founded by al-Shādhilī (1196–1258 (AH 593–656)) who left, not written works, but many sayings and chants. The best-known collection is Ḥizb al-Baḥr (Incantation of the Sea), which effected many miracles. He strongly emphasized ṣabr (acceptance) and shukr (thanksgiving). He insisted on observance of Sunnī orthodoxy, hence avoiding conflict as the movement spread, mainly into N. Africa. From the Shādhiliy(y)a derived many other orders, e.g. the ʿAlawiy(y)a, the Darqawiy(y)a. The influence of the Shādhiliy(y)a was extended in the 20th cent. beyond the Muslim world through the writings of René Guénon, also known as Shaykh ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyā, who sought to identify comparable spiritual and cosmological principles underlying all the great religions; and through the work of Frithjof Schuon.

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