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Sammā-padhāna (Pāli; Skt., samyak-prahānāni). The four perfect efforts in Buddhism, designed to eliminate obstacles in the present and future: (i) the effort to avoid obstacles; (ii) the effort to overcome them; (iii) the effort to cultivate the seven contributions to enlightenment (bojjhanga); (iv) the effort to maintain them. They are the sixth step on the Eightfold Path (aṣṭangika-marga).