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Mourides or Muridiyya (Arab., murīd, ‘aspirant’ or ‘disciple’). An innovative Muslim brotherhood in Senegal. It derives from Amadu Bamba (c.1850–1927), a saintly, scholarly marabout within the Sūfī and Qadariy(y)a tradition, and Ibra Fall (1858–1930), an aristocratic Wolof. Together they founded new agricultural villages and a new holy city, Touba, which became the centre for the Magal, an annual pilgrimage which attracted half a million pilgrims by 1975. Deviations from orthodox Islam include rejection of the duty of holy war (jihād) and of the Meccan pilgrimage (ḥajj), reduction of almsgiving to tithes to the marabout, and giving more attention to the latter than to Islamic law, and to Amadu Bamba than to Muḥammad.

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