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Ikebana (Jap., ‘living flowers’). The practice of flower-contemplation, often (but misleadingly) called the art of flower-arranging in Japan; also known as kadō, the ‘Way of flowers’. By the 15th cent., informal traditions of floral arranging became formalized into distinct, stylistic ‘schools’—each with their own oral and written teachings, and each with their own line of master teachers. These exist today as the Ohara, Ikenobo, and Sogetsu schools.