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Ibn ḥazm, Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Said

Ibn Ḥazm, Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. Said (994–1064 (AH 384–456)). Spanish Muslim philosopher, theologian, poet, and jurist, the chief codifier of the Ẓāhirīya (literalist) school of law and theology. An intellectual giant, his tongue was said to be as sharp as a sword. Ibn Ḥazm is said to have written 400 works.

Ibn Ḥazm's major work Kitāb al-faṣl (Book of the Harvest) dealt with the subject of God, his nature and attributes, freewill and predestination, faith, life after death, and the Imamate. For Ibn Ḥazm the only union possible with God is the union of understanding (fahm) and obeying his commands. The emotional consequences of life lived in islām (allegiance to God) were explored by him in The Ring of the Dove [or Necklace of the Dove].

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