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Ethiopianism. A term used to identify one type of African independent church, which first emerged in the 1880s in Ghana, Nigeria (here called the ‘African churches’), and in S. Africa, where the term was first used by Mokone's Ethiopian Church in 1892. It is based on references to Ethiopia in the Bible, especially in Psalm 68. 31, and on the ancient Christian kingdom of Ethiopia; together these provide a charter for dignity and independence.