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Dzogchen (Tib., rDzogschen). ‘Great perfection’, in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism (Tibetan religion), the highest of the nine yānas (ways) which lead to perfect completion; and as the highest of the ways, it is also used sometimes as a synonym for Nyingmapa teaching itself. It is known also as ati-yoga (Atiyoga, exceptional yoga), beyond which nothing is required (or indeed possible) in order to reach the goal. Central to Dzogchen is the realization that nothing, either mental or physical, has reality underlying its appearance, and that the mind, which cannot be measured or weighed, and is neither square nor round, is the threshold of truth (once it is disentangled from ignorance and delusion) because it is realized as being purely what it is. Dzogchen leads to the direct awareness of ‘mind’ as it is: the buddha-nature without qualification or attribute.

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