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Chadō or cha-no-yu (Jap., ‘tea-way’). Zen Buddhist way to overcome ordinary consciousness, in which entities are differentiated, in themselves, or in subject-object distinctions. The translation ‘tea-ceremony’ is thus misleading if it implies a ritual involving tea, although its actions and context are highly formalized. Like other forms of Zen practice in the aesthetic domain (e.g. flower-way—not flower-arranging, kado, ikebana), it is a means of mind-realization of the single buddha-nature (buddhatā) of all appearance. The preparation and drinking of tea (religiously) began in China, apparently for medicinal purposes (reviewed by Lu Yü in Chʾa Ching). Sen no Rikyū (1521–91) organized tea-drinking practices into a single system, and also instructed Hideyoshi, who became the great master of cha-no-yu.

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