ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī

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ʿAbd al-Rāziq, ʿAlī (1888–1966). Egyptian writer and scholar whose Islām wa Usūl al-Hukm (Islam and the Principles of Government) caused a sensation in 1825. Responding to the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate the previous year, he claimed that Islam had never been essentially political, that the Caliphate was dispensable, and that Islam was a purely spiritual loyalty.