Zarqawi, Abu Musab al-
Abu Musab al- Zarqawi (ä´bōō mōōsäb äl-zärkä´wē), nom de guerre of Ahmad Fadhil Nazzar al-Khalaylah, 1966–2006, Islamic terrorist leader, b. Jordan. Becoming a militant Islamist in his early 20s after several years as a mostly petty criminal, he traveled to Afghanistan in 1989 to join the mujahidin, but saw little fighting and worked as a journalist. Returning to Jordan, he was arrested (1994) for plotting against the king and jailed until 1999. In Afghanistan again by 2000, he met Osama bin Laden but established his own training camp; he fled the country when the United States moved against the Taliban after the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks. Zarqawi was in Iraq, possibly working with Iranian-supported Islamists, when the United States invaded, and by mid-2003 Al-Tawhid wa al-Jihad, which he headed, was mounting terror attacks, including videotaped beheadings and suicide bombings, against U.S. forces and Iraqi Shiites. Responsible for deadly terror attacks in both Iraq and Jordan, Zarqawi publicly aligned himself with Al Qaeda in 2004 and the group became known as Al Qaeda in Iraq. Zarqawi was killed in a U.S. air strike north of Baghdad in 2006. See also Islamic State.
"Zarqawi, Abu Musab al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zarqawi-abu-musab-al
"Zarqawi, Abu Musab al-." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/zarqawi-abu-musab-al
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.