Thespiae (thĕs´pē-ē´), ancient city of Greece, in S Boeotia, near Mt. Helicon (now Elikón) and SW of Thebes. The Thespians fought (479 BC) against the Persians at Thermopylae and Plataea. They joined (after 382 BC) the Spartans against their rivals, the Thebans. The famous statue of Eros by Praxiteles was a showpiece of Thespiae.