Portia Simpson-Miller, 1945–, Jamaican political leader, prime minister of Jamaica (2006–7, 2012–). A member of the People's National party (PNP), she was first elected to parliament in 1976. After the PNP returned to power in 1989, she held a variety of ministerial portfolios, including sport (1989–93, 1995–2006), labor and welfare (1989–2000; labor and social security after 1995), tourism (2000–2002), and local government (2002–6). A popular figure, she was elected leader of the PNP in 2006 and shortly thereafter succeeded the retiring P. J. Patterson as prime minister, becoming the first woman to head Jamaica's government. The following year, however. the PNP narrowly lost control of parliament. Simpson-Miller and the PNP returned to power in 2012 after winning the Dec., 2011, elections.
"Simpson-Miller, Portia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simpson-miller-portia
"Simpson-Miller, Portia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/simpson-miller-portia
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.