Sailendra (sīlĕn´drä), name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia. The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent. The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism, extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina. After their eclipse in Java (late 9th cent.), they retained control of Sri Vijaya, with important centers at Palembang (their capital) and in Kedah and Patani on the Malayan Peninsula. The Sailendra power was badly shaken by the Chola war of the 11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent.