Pollonarrua or Polonnaruwa (both: pŏl´ənərōō´ə), ruined ancient city, NE Sri Lanka. Pollonarrua, beautifully situated on a lake, was once the most splendid city of Sri Lanka. It became a royal residence in the mid-4th cent. and the capital after the fall (late 8th cent.) of Anuradhapura. The city reached its height under the rule of king Parakrama Bahu I (1164–97), the last notable monarch of the Sinhalese dynasty. He embellished the capital with temples, stupas, and huge stone images of Buddha; among these is a famous colossal statue of the recumbent Buddha. Pollonarrua fell to the Hindu Tamils in the 13th cent. The name is also spelled Pollanarrua.