Mutharika, Bingu wa
Bingu wa Mutharika (bēng´gōō wä mōōtä´rēkä), 1934–2012, Malawian economist and political leader, b. Nyasaland (now Malawi) as Brightson Webster Ryson Thom; he africanized his name during the 1960s. Mutharika served in the governments of Nyasaland (1963–64) and Zambia (1965––66). He then worked as a loan officer at the World Bank, held several UN posts, including director for trade and development finance for Africa (1978–90), and was secretary-general (1991–97) of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Mutharika cofounded the United Democratic Front in 1992. Following an unsuccessful bid for president in 1999 he was made deputy governor of Malawi's central bank, and in 2002 was named minister of economic planning and development. Elected president in 2004 and 2009, he led an anticorruption campaign, breaking with former president Muluzi and founding the Democratic Progressive party in 2005. His first term was marked by economic improvements in the country, but rising prices, high unemployment, and human-rights abuses caused widespread protests in 2011.
"Mutharika, Bingu wa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mutharika-bingu-wa
"Mutharika, Bingu wa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 20, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mutharika-bingu-wa
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.