Ferid Murad, 1936–, American pharmacologist, b. Whiting, Ind., M.D., Ph.D. Western Reserve Univ. (now Case Western Reserve Univ.), 1965. Murad taught at the Univ. of Virginia (1975–81), Stanford Univ. (1981–89), and Northwestern Univ. (1988) and worked in the private sector for Abbott Laboratories (1988–92) and Molecular Geriatrics Corporation (1993–95). In 1997 he became a professor at the Univ. of Texas, Houston. In 1998, he was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Louis J. Ignarro and Robert F. Furchgott for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide's function as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. Murad analyzed the action of nitroglycerin and other vasodilators and discovered that they relax smooth muscle cells through the release of nitric oxide. The finding has had significant medical implications in the treatment of not only cardiovascular disease but also impotence, septic shock, and cancer; the work led to the development of the anti-impotence sildenafil citrate (Viagra).
"Murad, Ferid." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/murad-ferid
"Murad, Ferid." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/murad-ferid
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.