Mausolus (môsō´ləs), d. 353 BC, Persian satrap, ruler over Caria (c.376–353 BC). He was always more or less independent. One of the satraps who revolted against Artaxerxes II, he later allied himself with the Persian kings. He extended his power greatly, even to hegemony over Rhodes. After his death his wife, Artemisia, erected at Halicarnassus a tomb that he had planned, called the mausoleum.