Fethullah Gülen, 1941–, Turkish Islamic leader, founder of the Gülen movement, an educational, religious, and social Islamic organization that has supported the Justice and Development party (AKP) in Turkey and has a worldwide following. Gülen began as an imam, becoming an important religious figure in the 1970s. He then turned to writing, education, and interfaith dialogue as a way to promote his ideas, which include a moderately conservative Islam and free-market economics. The movement now has an estimated three million followers, with some 1,000 Gülen-inspired schools, many in the United States, as well as numerous mass-media outlets and businesses. Gülen immigrated to the United States in 1999. He was tried in absentia on charges of trying to overthrow the secular Turkish government (on the basis of videotapes in which he appeared to advocate an Islamic government) and acquitted in 2008. Tensions between the Gülen movement and the Turkish government of Prime Minister Erdoğan developed in 2012, when the prime minister began to regard the movement as a threat to his power. Subsequently, Erdoğan targeted the movement's private tutoring schools, and a law closing them was passed (2014), but it was annulled (2015) by the constitutional court. In 2013 Erdoğan accused the movement of being behind a Turkish investigation of corruption in his government; an arrest warrant for Gülen was issued in Dec., 2014.
See study by J. Hendrick (2013).
"Gülen, Fethullah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 18, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulen-fethullah
"Gülen, Fethullah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gulen-fethullah