Abdullah Gül (äb´dōōlä gōōl), 1950–, Turkish politician, grad. İstanbul Univ. (B.A., 1971; Ph.D., 1983). An economist, he was first elected to parliament in 1991, originally as a member of the Islamist Welfare party and later (1999) as a member of its successor, the Virtue party. In 2001 he was a founding member of the Justice and Development (AK) party. In 2002, when Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was banned from running for office, Gül was elected prime minister after the AK won a landslide victory. The following year Erdoğan became prime minister and Gül was appointed deputy prime minister and foreign minister. In Apr., 2007 Gül, a moderate Islamist, was the sole candidate for Turkey's presidency, but a boycott by secular opposition parties narrowly denied Gül's supporters the parliamentary quorum required for voting and he withdrew his candidacy. However, after parliamentary elections in July, which again gave the AK a sizable majority, Gül was elected to the presidency. He adopted a more conciliatory public approach than Erdoğan to those who demonstrated against the government in 2013. In 2014 Erdoğan succeeded him as president.
"Gül, Abdullah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gul-abdullah
"Gül, Abdullah." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gul-abdullah
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.