Skip to main content

Fire, Andrew Zachary

Andrew Zachary Fire, 1959–, American geneticist, b. Palo Alto, Calif., Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1983. After a long association with the Carnegie Institution of Washington (1986–2003), Fire became a professor at Stanford Univ. in 2003. Fire and Craig Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their joint discovery of RNA interference, in which the activity of a specific gene is silenced by double-stranded RNA. In this catalytic process, double-stranded RNA sets in motion a biochemical mechanism that corrupts messenger RNA molecules carrying the same genetic code as that of the double-stranded RNA. RNA interference has providea new method for the study of gene function, and it has the potential to lead to the development of novel agricultural pesticides and medical therapies.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Fire, Andrew Zachary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 19 Dec. 2018 <>.

"Fire, Andrew Zachary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (December 19, 2018).

"Fire, Andrew Zachary." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 19, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.